Dietas saludables y sustentables, ¿Son posibles en la Argentina?

  • Ezequiel M. Arrieta Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal, CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Córdoba, Argentina. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6158-3583
  • Alejandro D. González Instituto Andino-Patagónico de Tecnologías Biológicas y Geoambientales, CONICET - Universidad Nacional del Comahue. San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • Roberto J. Fernández Cátedra de Ecología e IFEVA-CONICET, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Palabras clave: sistemas agroalimentarios, salud pública, sostenibilidad, nutrición, enfermedades crónicas no-transmisibles, seguridad alimentaria

Resumen

Para afrontar el reto de alimentar a una población creciente que cambia su estilo de vida y su dieta y, al mismo tiempo, tratar de conservar los recursos naturales y proteger la biodiversidad, se proponen tres estrategias principales para lograr tales objetivos: 1) cambiar la forma de producir los alimentos en el campo (aumentando la eficiencia), 2) reducir las pérdidas y desperdicios a lo largo de la cadena agroalimentaria, y 3) promover la adopción de dietas saludables y sostenibles. Las dos primeras estrategias fueron contempladas en nuestro país y forman parte de la agenda académica, gubernamental y productiva, pero la tercera ha sido muy poco explorada. A través de un análisis de la bibliografía destacamos la importancia de incluir a las dietas saludables como herramienta para contribuir simultáneamente a la sustentabilidad del sistema agroalimentario y al mejoramiento de la salud pública, y resaltamos los desafíos que esto implicaría para el abastecimiento del mercado interno. Para ello, primero presentamos información de los impactos ambientales de los sistemas agroalimentarios y las dos primeras estrategias nombradas, utilizadas tradicionalmente para abordarlos. Segundo, exponemos los motivos por los cuales la búsqueda de la eficiencia no debería ser el único camino a seguir debido a las consecuencias esperadas del cada vez mejor conocido ‘Efecto Rebote’ (o Paradoja de Jevons). Tercero, analizamos las evidencias a favor de una correlación positiva entre los beneficios para la salud de varios grupos de alimentos (en general, de origen vegetal) y el impacto relativamente bajo que tiene su producción sobre el ambiente. Finalmente, hacemos un breve análisis físico (no económico) sobre la capacidad que tendría el sistema agroalimentario nacional para proveer de alimentos saludables en cantidad suficiente y sus consecuencias para el ambiente y el sector productivo.

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Dietas saludables y sustentables, ¿Son posibles en la Argentina?
Publicado
2021-03-05