Diversidad y grupos funcionales de insectos en cultivos de arroz y sus bordes bajo manejo convencional y agroecológico en Santa Fe, Argentina.

  • Carla Ghiglione Cátedra de Entomología, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina.
  • Leticia Zumoffen INTA Ángel Gallardo. Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. CONICET, Argentina.
  • María de los M. Dalmazzo Cátedra de Entomología, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. CONICET, Argentina.
  • Ruth Strasser Cátedra de Entomología, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina.
  • Andres M. Attademo CONICET, Argentina. Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología, Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina.
Palabras clave: servicios ecosistémicos, interacciones planta-visitante floral, depredadores, parasitoides, taipas

Resumen

El arroz es el cereal de mayor producción considerado el alimento base para el 50% de la población mundial. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron i) conocer la diversidad de insectos que presentan los cultivos de arroz y sus bordes ii) caracterizar grupos funcionales según el rol ecosistémico que cumplen los insectos en cultivos de arroz y sus bordes con diferente tipo de manejo iii) analizar las interacciones de los grupos funcionales con la vegetación de los bordes. Los muestreos se realizaron durante un ciclo de producción primavera-verano (2017-2018), en cultivos de arroz con prácticas de manejo convencional (MC) y agroecológico (MA). Se capturaron 1005 ejemplares pertenecientes a 244 especies y morfoespecies. Los bordes presentaron mayor riqueza, abundancia y diversidad de Shannon en relación al cultivo, siendo el MA destacado por la presencia de los cinco grupos funcionales. En ambos manejos, se presenció Sepedonea sp., Protodictya sp. y Eryopis connexa (L.) como controladores de gasterópodos e insectos plagas. Se registraron 397 interacciones insecto-planta en MA y 175 en MC. Se destaca la importancia de los bordes y las prácticas MA en el cultivo de arroz para favorecer la conservación de entomofauna y potenciar los servicios ecosistémicos que éstos brindan a los sistemas productivos.

Citas

Acosta, L. G., S. M. Jahnke, L. R. Redaelli, and P. R. S. Pires. 2017. Insect diversity in organic rice fields under two management systems of levees vegetation. Brazilian Journal of Biology 77:731-744. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.19615.

Ali, M. P., M. N. Bari, S. S. Haque, M. M. M. Kabir, S. Afrin, F. Nowrin, M. S. Islam, and D. A. Landis. 2019. Establishing next-generation pest control services in rice fields: Eco-agriculture. Scientific Reports 9:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46688-6.

Altieri, M. A., and C. I. Nicholls. 2007. Conversión agroecológica de sistemas convencionales de producción: teoría, estrategias y evaluación. Revista Ecosistemas 16:3-12.

Attademo, A. M., P. M. Peltzer, R. C. Lajmanovich, M. Cabagna, and G. Fiorenza. 2007. Plasma B-esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in the toad Chaunus schneideri (Amphibia, Anura) inhabiting rice agroecosystems of Argentina. Ecotoxicology 16:533-539. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-007-0154-0.

Attademo, A. M., P. M. Peltzer, and R. C. Lajmanovich. 2015. Biochemical changes in certain enzymes of Lysapsus limellium (Anura: Hylidae) exposed to chlorpyrifos. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 113:287-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.12.021.

Attademo, A. M., R. Lorenzón, P. Peltzer, and R. Lajmanovich. 2018. Diversity of Anurans in rice fields under organic and conventional management in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Herpetological Review 49:632-635.

Attademo, A. M., P. M. Peltzer, R. C. Lajmanovich, M. C. Cabagna-Zenklusen, C. M. Junges, and A Basso. 2014. Biological endpoints, enzyme activities, and blood cell parameters in two anuran tadpole species in rice agroecosystems of mid-eastern Argentina. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186:635-649. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3404-z.

Bambaradeniya, C. 2003. Traditional home garden and rice agro-ecosystems in Sri Lanka: An integrated managed landscape that sustains a rich biodiversity. Pp. 18-19 in Proc International Symp Perspectives of the Biodiversity Research in the Western Pacific and Asia in the 21st Century. Kyoto, Japan.

Bambaradeniya, C. N. B., and F. P. Amerasinghe. 2004. Biodiversity associated with the rice field agroecosystem in Asian countries: a brief review. IWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOC.0000029331.92656.de.

Bambaradeniya, C. N. B., and J. P. Edirisinghe. 2009. Composition, structure and dynamics of arthropod communities in a rice agro-ecosystem. Ceylon Journal of Science (biological Sciences) 37:23-48. https://doi.org/10.4038/cjsbs.v37i1.494.

Bersier, L. F., C. Banašek-Richter, and M. F. Cattin. 2002. Quantitative descriptors of food-web matrices. Ecology 83:2394-2407. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[2394:QDOFWM]2.0.CO;2.

Brodeur, J., and G. Boivin. 2006. Trophic and Guild Interactions in Biological Control. Springer, New York, USA. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4767-3.

Burkart, R. N., O. Bárbaro, R. O. Sánchez, and D. A. Gomez. 1999. Ecorregiones de la Argentina. Administración de Parques Nacionales y Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y Desarrollo Sustentable, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Chacoff, N. P., D. P. Vázquez, S. B. Lomáscolo, E. L. Stevani, J. Dorado, and B. Padrón. 2012. Evaluating sampling completeness in a desert plant-pollinator network. Journal of Animal Ecology 81:190-200. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2011.01883.x.

Chapin, F. S. III., E. S. Zavaleta, V. T. Eviner, R. L. Naylor, P. M. Vitousek, H. L. Reynolds, D. U. Hooper, S. Lavorel, O. E. Sala, S. E. Hobbie, M. C. Mack., and S. Díaz. 2000. Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405:234-242. https://doi.org/10.1038/35012241.

Chapman, E. G., A. A. Przhiboro, J. D. Harwood, B. A. Foote, and W. R. Hoeh. 2012. Widespread and persistent invasions of terrestrial habitats coincident with larval feeding behavior transitions during snail-killing fly evolution (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 12:175-197. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-12-175.

Claps, L. E, G. Debandi, and S. Roig-Juñet. 2008. Biodiversidad de Artrópodos Argentinos Volumen 2. Editorial Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, Mendoza, Argentina.

Cordo, H. A., G. Logarzo, K. Braun, and O. Di Iorio. 2004. Catálogo de los insectos fitófagos de la Argentina y sus plantas asociadas. Editorial Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Dainese, M., E. A. Martin, M. A. Aizen, M. Albrecht, I. Bartomeus, R. Bommarco, L. G. Carvalheiro, R. Chaplin-kramer, V. Gagic, L. A. Garibaldi, J. Ghazoul, H. Grab, M. Jonsson, D. S. Karp, D. K. Letourneau, L. Marini, K. Poveda, R. Rader, H. G. Smith, M. B. Takada, H. Taki, G. Tamburini, and M. Tschumi. 2019. A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production. Science Advances 5:1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax0121.

Dalmazzo, M. 2010. Diversidad y aspectos biológicos de abejas silvestres de un ambiente urbano y otro natural de la región central de Santa Fe, Argentina. Rev. Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 69:33-44.

de Remes Lenicov, A. M. M., R. Mariani, A. Maciá, A. Toledo, M. E. Brentassi, M. F. Rossi Batiz, M. I. Catalano, and S. Paradell. 2014. Diversity of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) in rice associated with weeds in Argentina. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 49:95-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2014.925683.

de Souza da Silva, G., S. Mundstock Jahnke, and M. L. González Ferreira. 2016. Hymenoptera parasitoids in protected area of Atlantic Forest biomes and organic rice field: compared assemblages. Revista Colombiana de Entomología 42:110-117. https://doi.org/10.25100/socolen.v42i2.6680.

Dormann, C. F., B. Gruber, and J. Fründ. 2008. Introducing the bipartite package: analysing ecological networks. R News 8: 8-11.

Dormann, C. F., J. Fründ, N. Blüthgen, and B. Gruber. 2009. Indices, graphs and null models: analyzing bipartite ecological networks. The Open Ecology Journal 2:7-24. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874213000902010007.

Duré, M. I., A. I. Kehr, E. F. Schaefer, and F. Marangoni. 2008. Diversity of amphibians in rice fields from northeastern Argentina. Interciencia 33:523-527.

Edirisinghe, J. P., and C. N. Bambaradeniya. 2010. Rice fields: an ecosystem rich in biodiversity. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka 34:57-59. https://doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v34i2.2084.

Fernández, F., and M. J. Sharkey. 2006. Introducción a los Hymenoptera de la Región Neotropical. Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología y Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

Fisher, B., and R. K. Turner. 2008. Ecosystem services: classification for valuation. Biological Conservation 141:1167-1169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.02.019.

Gallo, D., O. Nakano, S. Silveira Neto, R. P. L., Carvalho, G. C., Baptista, E. Berti-Filho, J. R. P. Parra, R. A Zucchi, S. B. Alves, J. D. Vendramim, L. C. Marchini, J. R. S. Lopes, and C. Omoto. 2002. Entomología agrícola. FEALQ, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil.

Garibaldi, L. A., I. S.‐Dewenter, C. Kremen, J. M. Morales, R. Bommarco, S. A. Cunningham, L. Carvalheiro, N. P. Chacoff, J. H. Dudenhöffer, S. S. Greenleaf, A. Holzschuh, R. I. Isaacs, K. Krewenka, Y. Mandelik, M. M. Mayfield, L. A. Morandin, S. G. Potts, T. H. Ricketts, H. Szentgyörgyi, F. V. Blandina, C. Westphal, R. Winfree, and A. M. Klein. 2011. Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honey bee visits. Ecology Letters 14:1062-1072. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01669.x.

Gurr, G. M., S. D. Wratten, and M. A. Altieri. 2004. Ecological engineering for pest management: Advances in habitat manipulation for arthropods. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia. https://doi.org/10.1071/9780643098411.

Gurr, G. M., J. Liu, D. M. Read, J. L. A. Catindig, J. A. Cheng, L. P. Lan, and K. L. Heong. 2011. Parasitoids of Asian rice planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) pests and prospects for enhancing biological control by ecological engineering. Annals of Applied Biology 158:149-176. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2010.00455.x.

IPBES-7. 2019. Plenary of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Paris, France.

Kaiser-Bunbury, C. N., J. Memmott, and C. B. Müller. 2009. Community structure of pollination webs of Mauritian heathland habitats. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11:241-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2009.04.001.

Kehinde, T., and M. J. Samways. 2014. Insect-flower interactions: Network structure in organic versus conventional vineyards. Animal Conservation 17:401-409. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12118.

Kirst, F. D., L. Marinoni, and R. F. Krüger. 2015. New distribution records for Sciomyzidae species (Insecta, Diptera) from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Check List 11:1552. https://doi.org/10.15560/11.1.1552.

Kremen, C., N. M. Williams, R. L. Bugg, J. P. Fay, and R. W. Thorp. 2004. The area requirements of an ecosystem service: crop pollination by native bee communities in California. Ecology Letters 7:1109-1119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00662.x.

Kruger, R. D., and L. Burdyn. 2015. Guía para la identificación de plagas del cultivo del arroz (Oryza Sativa L.). INTA, Corrientes, Argentina.

Lang, A. 2003. Intraguild interference and biocontrol effects of generalist predators in a winter wheat field. Oecologia 134:144-153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-1091-5.

Le Féon, V., S. L. Poggio, J. P. Torretta, C. Bertrand, G. A. R. Molina, F. Burel, J. Baudry, and C. M. Ghersa. 2016. Diversity and life-history traits of wild bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera) in intensive agricultural landscapes in the Rolling Pampa, Argentina. Journal of Natural History 50:1175-1196. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2015.1113315.

Lindgren, J., R. Lindborg, and S. A. Cousins. 2018. Local conditions in small habitats and surrounding landscape are important for pollination services, biological pest control and seed predation. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 251:107-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2017.09.025.

López-Lanús, B., P. Grilli, E. Coconier, A. Di Giacomo, R. Banchs, and G. Marino. 2010. Ecología del Charlatán y su estado actual en la Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. Aves Argentinas/Asociación Ornitológica del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Lorenzón, R., E. J. León, M. Juani, A. H. Beltzer, P. M. Peltzer, R. C. Lajmanovich, and A. M. Attademo. 2020. Can agroecological management increase functional diversity of birds in rice fields? Revista de Biología Tropical 68:873-883. https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v68i3.39261.

Marinoni, L., and L. V. Knutson. 2010. Sciomyzidae. In Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley and M. A Zumbado (eds.). Manual of Central American Diptera. Vol. 2. NRC Research Press. Ottawa, Canadá.

Marrero, H. J., J. P. Torretta, and D. Medan. 2014. Effect of land use intensification on specialization in plant-floral visitor interaction networks in the Pampas of Argentina. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 188:63-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.02.017.

McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth and D. M. Wood. 1981. Manual of Neartic Diptera. Research Branch Monograph 27, Ottawa, Canada.

Medan, D., J. P. Torretta, K. Hodara, E. B. de la Fuente, and N. H. Montaldo. 2011. Effects of agriculture expansion and intensification on the vertebrate and invertebrate diversity in the Pampas of Argentina. Biodiversity and Conservation 20:3077-3100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-011-0118-9.

Memmott, J. 2009. Food webs: a ladder for picking strawberries or a practical tool for practical problems? Philos Trans Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364:1693-1699. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0255.

Michener, C. D. 2007. The bees of the world. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Molina, G. A., S. L. Poggio, and C. M. Ghersa. 2014. Epigeal arthropod communities in intensively farmed landscapes: effects of land use mosaics, neighbourhood heterogeneity, and field position. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 192:135-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.04.013.

Molina, G. A. R., S. L. Poggio, and C. M. Ghersa. 2016. Structural complexity of arthropod guilds is affected by the agricultural landscape heterogeneity generated by fencerows. Annals of Applied Biology 168:173-184. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12253.

Molina, G. A., S. L. Poggio, and C. M. Ghersa. 2019. Parasitoid diversity and parasitism rates in Pampean agricultural mosaics are enhanced by landscape heterogeneity. Insect Conservation and Diversity 12:309-320. https://doi.org/10.1111/icad.12342.

Montero, G. A. 2008. Comunidades de artrópodos en vegetación de áreas no cultivadas del sudeste de Santa Fe. MSc Tesis. Maestría en Manejo y Conservación de Recursos Naturales. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Rosario. Zavalla, Santa Fe, Argentina.

Morrone, J. J., and S. Coscarón. 1998. Biodiversidad de artrópodos argentinos: una perspectiva biotaxonómica. Ediciones SUR, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Öckinger, E., and H. G. Smith. 2007. Semi‐natural grasslands as population sources for pollinating insects in agricultural landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology 44:50-59. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01250.x.

Oksanen, J., F. G. Blanchet, M. Friendly, R. Kindt, P. Legendre, D. McGlinn, P. R Minchin, R. B. O´Hara, G. L. Simpson, P. Solymos, M. Henry, H. Stevens, E. Szoecs, and H. Wagner. 2019. Vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.5.4.

Okuyama, T., and J. N. Holland. 2008. Network structural properties mediate the stability of mutualistic communities. Ecology Letters 11:208-216. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01137.x.

Pinciroli, M., N. Ponzio, and S. Raquel. 2015. El arroz: alimento de millones. Un texto sencillo para alumnos de las carreras vinculadas a las Ciencias Agrarias y Tecnología de los Alimentos. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Pires, P. R., S., M. Jahnke, and L. R. Redaelli. 2016. Influence of the vegetation management of the leeves in irrigated rice organic in diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoids. Brazilian Journal of Biology 76:774-781. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.06215.

Poggio, S. L., E. J. Chaneton, and C. M. Ghersa. 2010. Landscape complexity differentially affects alpha, beta, and gamma diversities of plants occurring in fencerows and crop fields. Biological Conservation 143:2477-2486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.06.014.

Poggio, S. L., E. J. Chaneton, and C. M. Ghersa. 2013. The arable plant diversity of intensively managed farmland: Effects of field position and crop type at local and landscape scales. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 166:55-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2012.01.013.

Potts, S. G., J. C. Biesmeijer, C. Kremen, P. Neumann, O. Schweiger, and W. E. Kunin. 2010. Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25:345-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.01.007.

Power, E. F., and J.C. Stout. 2011. Organic dairy farming: impacts on insect-flower interaction networks and pollination. Journal of Applied Ecology 48:561-569. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01949.x.

R Core Team. 2020. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL: R-project.org.

Roig-Juñent, S., L. E. Claps, and J. J. Morrone. 2014. Biodiversidad de Artrópodos Argentinos. INSUE- Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina.

Romero, A., M. F. Potter, and K. F. Haynes. 2009. Evaluation of piperonyl butoxide as a deltamethrin synergist for pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs. Journal of Economic Entomology 102:2310-2315. https://doi.org/10.1603/029.102.0637.

Rosenheim, J. A., H. K. Kaya, L. E. Ehler, J. J. Marois, and B. A. Jaffe. 1995. Intraguild predation among biological-control agents: theory and evidence. Biological Control 5:303-335. https://doi.org/10.1006/bcon.1995.1038.

RStudio Team. 2020. RStudio: Integrated Development for R. RStudio, PBC, Boston, MA. URL: rstudio.com.

Sáez, A., M. Sabatino, and M. Aizen. 2014. La diversidad floral del borde afecta la riqueza y abundancia de visitantes florales nativos en cultivos de girasol. Ecología Austral 24:94-102. https://doi.org/10.25260/EA.14.24.1.0.41.

SEA. 2017. Informe n° 337. Sistema de Estimaciones Agrícolas, Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (I.D.I.C.Y.T.). Gobierno de la provincia de Santa Fe, Santa Fe, Argentina. URL: tinyurl.com/t7hvyy4z.

SIIA. 2019. Sistema Integrado de Información Agropecuaria, Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca de la Nación Argentina. URL: siia.gov.ar.

Silva, G. S., S. M. Jahnke, and N. F. Johnson. 2020. Riparian forest fragments in rice fields under different management: differences on hymenopteran parasitoids diversity. Brazilian Journal of Biology 80:122 132. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.194760.

Torretta, J. P., F. Navarro, and D. Medan. 2009. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae) en la Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 68:339-350.

Torretta, J. P., and S. L. Poggio. 2013. Species diversity of entomophilous plants and flower-visiting insects is sustained in the field margins of sunflower crops. Journal of Natural History 47:139-165. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2012.742162.

Triplehorn, C. A., and N. F. Johnson. 2005. Borror and delong’s introduction to the study of insects. Brooks. Cole, Belmont, California, USA.

Tscharntke, T., A. M. Klein, A. Kruess, I. Steffan‐Dewenter, and C. Thies. 2005. Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity-ecosystem service management. Ecology Letters 8:857-874. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00782.x.

Tylianakis, J. M., T. Tscharntke, and O. T. Lewis. 2007. Habitat modification alters the structure of tropical host-parasitoid food webs. Nature 445:202-205. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05429.

Vázquez, D. P., C. J. Melián, N. M. Williams, N. Blüthgen, B. R. Krasnov, and R. Poulin. 2007. Species abundance and asymmetric interaction strength in ecological networks. Oikos 116:1120-1127. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2007.15828.x.

Vázquez, D. P., N. Blüthgen, L. Cagnolo, and N. P. Chacoff. 2009. Uniting pattern and process in plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review. Annals of Botany 103:1445-1457. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcp057.

Diversidad y grupos funcionales de insectos en cultivos de arroz y sus bordes bajo manejo convencional y agroecológico en Santa Fe, Argentina.
Publicado
2021-05-03