Diversidad de mariposas diurnas (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en bosques y cultivos de cacao en un área de bosque amazónico basimontano en Bolivia

  • Indyra Lafuente Cartagena Instituto de Ecología, Carrera de Biología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA). La Paz-Bolivia. Asociación Boliviana para la Investigación y Conservación de Ecosistemas Andino-Amazónicos (ACEAA-Conservación Amazónica). La Paz, Bolivia. http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8854-259X
  • Kazuya Naoki Instituto de Ecología, Carrera de Biología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA). La Paz-Bolivia.
  • Adriana Rico-Cernohorska Colección Boliviana de Fauna, Instituto de Ecología, Carrera de Biología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA). La Paz-Bolivia.
  • Fernando Guerra-Serrudo Colección Boliviana de Fauna, Instituto de Ecología, Carrera de Biología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA). La Paz-Bolivia.
  • Luis F. Pacheco Colección Boliviana de Fauna, Instituto de Ecología, Carrera de Biología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA). La Paz-Bolivia.
Palabras clave: bosque primario, bosque secundario, composición, Papilionoidea, red entomológica, trampa de cebo, GLMM, ordenamiento

Resumen

La conversión de bosques tropicales hacia la agricultura ha aumentado en los últimos años, aunque muchas veces ese cambio de uso del suelo es seguido por el abandono de los cultivos y su posterior conversión hacia bosques secundarios. En este estudio evaluamos el efecto de la perturbación sobre el ensamblaje de lepidópteros de la familia Nymphalidae en un área de bosque basimontano en Bolivia, para lo cual comparamos la diversidad y composición de mariposas entre bosques primarios, bosques secundarios y cultivos de cacao. Los datos se obtuvieron en época seca y en época de transición seca-húmeda por dos métodos de muestreo: red entomológica y trampeo con cebos. Registramos mayor abundancia, riqueza y heterogeneidad de especies de mariposas diurnas en la época seca. La riqueza de especies y la abundancia de mariposas en el sotobosque del bosque primario fue mayor que en cultivos durante la época de transición. El método de muestreo puede influir en la detección de cambios en las comunidades, ya que con trampas sólo detectamos variación estacional, mientras que con el muestreo manual registramos también mayor abundancia en ambos tipos de bosque que en los cultivos, y la heterogeneidad fue mayor en bosque primario que en cultivos. También se observó diferencia en la composición del ensamblaje de mariposas entre cultivos y ambos tipos de bosque. Aunque algunas mariposas de sotobosque son capaces de habitar sitios perturbados, es necesario resaltar la importancia del bosque primario para el mantenimiento de especies y grupos específicos que podrían perderse si la dinámica de perturbación se intensifica. Finalmente, es clave realizar estudios a largo plazo para entender la dinámica de las especies en la zona, tanto su estacionalidad como la relación con los recursos disponibles en cada tipo de hábitat.

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Diversidad de mariposas diurnas (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en bosques y cultivos de cacao en un área de bosque amazónico basimontano en Bolivia
Publicado
2021-05-05