Salud ambiental de playas rocosas en distintos partidos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires

  • Emiliano Hines Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET).
  • María L. Jaubet Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET).
  • Griselda V. Garaffo Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET).
Palabras clave: diversidad específica, diversidad funcional, índices bióticos, Argentina

Resumen

Los mares y océanos reciben el impacto proveniente de múltiples actividades antrópicas como, por ejemplo, los vertidos urbanos, el transporte marítimo y el turismo. Estas presiones que genera la actividad humana impactan de forma directa sobre los ecosistemas marinos, lo que genera contaminación, pérdida de hábitats o introducción de especies exóticas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la salud ambiental de distintas playas pertenecientes a cuatro partidos de la costa de la provincia de Buenos Aires: Necochea, General Alvarado, General Pueyrredón y Mar Chiquita. El estudio fue abordado desde la variabilidad en la estructura comunitaria (riqueza, equitatividad y diversidad), y también se caracterizó dicha estructura desde el análisis de rasgos funcionales e índices de diversidad funcional (riqueza funcional, equitatividad funcional, divergencia funcional, dispersión funcional, especialización funcional y entropía cuadrática) e índices de calidad ambiental (AMBI y M-AMBI) en respuesta a diferentes escenarios de contaminación por impacto antrópico (efluente cloacal, arroyos, emisario submarino y playas de uso recreativo sin aporte de otras fuentes). Los resultados mostraron que tanto la estructura como la composición del ensamble de especies variaron significativamente entre los sitios. El índice AMBI y M-AMBI reflejaron buena salud ambiental en todas las playas categorizando a todos los sitios como ‘buenos’ (o levemente disturbados), excepto el sitio Quequén, que quedó categorizado como ‘pobre’ (o fuertemente disturbado). Este sitio también presentó una composición del ensamble de rasgos funcionales característicos de áreas que presentan contaminación por materia orgánica (baja movilidad relativa, alimentadores de depósito, tubícolas o habitantes de galerías y especies oportunistas de 1er orden). El enfoque tradicional reflejó las diferencias en la estructura comunitaria de las diferentes playas y el enfoque funcional complementó este resultado mostrando que los rasgos funcionales cubiertos por las diferentes especies de las comunidades bentónicas se encuentran relacionadas principalmente con el aporte de materia orgánica que recibe cada playa (arroyos, pluviales, efluentes o emisarios submarinos).

Biografía del autor/a

Emiliano Hines, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET).

Laboratorio Bioindicadores Marinos, Dpto. De Cs. Marinas, UNMdP, IIMyC, CONICET

Citas

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Salud ambiental de playas rocosas en distintos partidos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires
Publicado
2021-02-25