Desarrollo de un índice multimétrico basado en macroinvertebrados acuáticos para evaluar la integridad biológica en ríos de los valles interandinos de Bolivia

  • Nabor Moya UMR BOREA, IRD 207, Unidad de Limnología y Recursos Acuáticos (ULRA), Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
  • Eduardo Domínguez CONICET - Instituto de Biodiversidad Neotropical (IBN), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina.
  • Edgar Goitia Unidad de Limnología y Recursos Acuáticos (ULRA), Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
  • Thierry Oberdorff UMR BOREA, IRD 207, DMPA, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle MNHN, Paris, France.
Palabras clave: ríos neotropicales, perturbación antropogénica, bioindicadores, insectos acuáticos

Resumen

Se presenta un índice multimétrico que permite discriminar la variabilidad ambiental natural de la antropogénica en 91 sitios (63 sitios de referencia y 28 sitios perturbados) distribuidos de manera uniforme a lo largo de la cuenca alta del Río Grande (Bolivia). En este procedimiento se utilizaron inicialmente 12 métricas que reflejan distintos atributos de la estructura y el funcionamiento de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados acuáticos, por su potencial como indicadoras de alteración de ambientes acuáticos. En principio, usando los sitios de referencia, se desarrollaron modelos estadísticos que describen la respuesta de las distintas métricas a la variabilidad ambiental natural. Luego se utilizaron estos modelos para predecir la respuesta de las métricas en condiciones alteradas, para lo cual se usaron los sitios que presentaban distintos tipos de perturbación antropogénica (i.e., perturbación por actividad agrícola, urbana y minera). De las 12 métricas iniciales se conservaron sólo cinco para elaborar el índice final (riqueza total, abundancia total, riqueza de Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera y Trichoptera (EPT), porcentaje en abundancia de EPT y porcentaje en abundancia de raspadores). Estas métricas resultaron las más efectivas al responder de manera significativa al gradiente de perturbación. Este índice distinguió con claridad los sitios de referencia de los perturbados, y mostró una relación lineal negativa significativa frente a un gradiente de perturbaciones físicas y químicas. Esta aproximación puede servir como herramienta de biomonitoreo para evaluar la integridad biótica y la biodiversidad acuática en los ríos de la región de los valles interandinos de Bolivia.

Citas

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Publicado
2011-08-01