Estructura y dinámica de tramas tróficas en sistemas acuáticos andino-norpatagónicos: relaciones con la materia orgánica, la luz y los nutrientes

  • Beatriz Modenutti Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET) Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • Ricardo Albariño Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET) Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • Marcela Bastidas Navarro Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET) Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • Verónica Díaz Villanueva Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET) Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • María Sol Souza Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET) Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • Carolina Trochine Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET) Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • Cecilia Laspoumaderes Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET) Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • Florencia Cuassolo Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET) Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • Gustavo Mariluán Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET) Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • Leonardo Buria Administración de Parques Nacionales, Bariloche, Argentina.
  • Esteban Balseiro Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET) Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
Palabras clave: bacterioplancton, fitoplancton, zooplancton, peces, insectos, lagos y ríos

Resumen

Los sistemas acuáticos de Patagonia incluyen lagos oligotróficos tanto profundos como someros con una importante red hidrográfica. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de la información surgida a partir de los trabajos de investigación en redes tróficas de sistemas acuáticos de Patagonia realizados durante la última década. Los estudios se basaron sobre muestreos de campo, experimentos en campo y laboratorio. Los lagos profundos y someros fueron estudiados en relación a la luz, materia orgánica y las restricciones en la disponibilidad de nutrientes como factores limitantes. Por otra parte, también hemos incluido en nuestros estudios a las redes tróficas de arroyos andinos, y analizamos las interacciones tróficas tanto en las vías autotróficas como las heterotróficas. Los sistemas andinos han sido definidos como sistemas de elevada relación luz:nutrientes, y bajo estas condiciones se generan altas relaciones C:P que resultan en redes tróficas caracterizadas por una baja calidad de recursos para los herbívoros. Nosotros analizamos entonces cómo esta baja calidad de alimento restringe la distribución de zoopláncteres y cómo afecta a éstos a nivel celular. En los lagos someros las macrófitas resultaron ser importante en la contribución de sustancia orgánica disuelta. Por otra parte, la zona litoral ofrece mayores recursos alimentarios y refugio a la depredación. Finalmente, analizamos el impacto de la introducción de salmónidos en tramas tróficas de lagos someros y ríos de cabecera.

Citas

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Publicado
2010-08-01
Sección
Sección Especial