Respuestas del plancton y peces de zonas templadas a la RUV y la temperatura en un contexto de cambio global

  • Rodrigo J. Gonçalves Estación de Fotobiología Playa Unión & Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Chubut, Argentina.
  • María Sol Souza Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA), Universidad Nacional del Comahue - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina
  • Juana Aigo Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA), Universidad Nacional del Comahue - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina
  • Beatriz Modenutti Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA), Universidad Nacional del Comahue - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina
  • Esteban Balseiro Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA), Universidad Nacional del Comahue - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina
  • Virginia E. Villafañe Estación de Fotobiología Playa Unión & Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Chubut, Argentina.
  • Víctor Cussac Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA), Universidad Nacional del Comahue - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina
  • Eduardo Walter Helbling Estación de Fotobiología Playa Unión & Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Chubut, Argentina.
Palabras clave: cambio climático, bacterioplancton, fitoplancton, zooplancton, peces, estrés oxidativo, capa superficial de mezcla

Resumen

En las últimas décadas, tanto la temperatura como la radiación UVB (280-315 nm) en la superficie del planeta han aumentado a velocidades crecientes como resultado de las actividades humanas. Muchos estudios han evaluado ya los efectos de la temperatura en ecosistemas acuáticos, pero ahora el campo de estudio se amplía a medida que cobra importancia la combinación de dichos factores. En el presente estudio, intentamos rever una parte de lo que sabemos acerca de los efectos de la RUV y la temperatura en el plancton marino y dulceacuícola y peces de latitudes medias (definidas como aquellas comprendidas entre 30 y 60o), especialmente en la región Patagónica, debido a las características particulares de estas regiones. La RUV afecta (en general, negativamente) casi todos los procesos, desde la fijación de carbono hasta el comportamiento y ciertamente todos los niveles tróficos dentro del plancton, desde virus hasta larvas de peces. El mayor efecto negativo de la RUV es probablemente la acción mutagénica de la UVB, la cual afecta un número de procesos tales como fotosíntesis, crecimiento y división celular, entre muchos otros. En los metazoos, la RUV puede ser un factor de estrés que afecta la supervivencia, o bien puede mostrar efectos subletales tales como en el comportamiento y alimentación. Es difícil extraer un patrón general en cuanto a las respuestas, aun dentro de un grupo de organismos, ya que éstas son generalmente especie-específicas y están fuertemente influenciadas por condiciones locales (e.g., penetración de la RUV, relación PAR/RUV y aclimatación). A pesar de que en muchos casos se han determinado efectos significativos, muchos organismos también disponen de mecanismos para evitar o minimizar el daño producido por la RUV. Sin embargo, este puede no ser el caso si consideramos los cambios en la temperatura. En peces por ejemplo, la temperatura es probablemente el factor más importante que determina la distribución del hábitat, y por lo tanto la biogeografía debe ser considerada para considerar las posibles consecuencias de los cambios de temperatura y de la RUV. Aun en los diferentes escenarios predichos por los modelos climáticos (incluyendo la recuperación de la capa de ozono y el aumento de la temperatura durante las próximas décadas) serán necesarias más investigaciones combinando RUV y temperatura para entender las respuestas de los ecosistemas acuáticos en el contexto del cambio global.

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Publicado
2010-08-01
Sección
Sección Especial