Una aproximación al funcionamiento de los arroyos de montaña del norte de la Patagonia Andina

  • Verónica Díaz Villanueva Laboratorio de Limnología, INIBIOMA, Universidad Nacional del Comahue - CONICET. San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
  • Ricardo Albariño Laboratorio de Fotobiología, INIBIOMA, Universidad Nacional del Comahue - CONICET. San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
Palabras clave: arroyos de cabecera, arroyos andino patagónicos, Nothofagus pumilio, Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, cuenca del Challhuaco

Resumen

Los Andes patagónicos tienen como vegetación característica los bosques de Nothofagus, que se extienden desde los 37° a los 55° S. En particular, N. pumilio (lenga) es la especie más ampliamente distribuida tanto en la Argentina como en Chile, y por ser decidua representa un notable pulso estacional de materia orgánica a los arroyos de cabecera. Estos arroyos tienen su origen en las alturas de las montañas y drenan las laderas hacia aguas bajas. Hace más de una década que se realizan estudios en la cuenca del Challhuaco, ubicada en la zona norte y en el extremo este de los Andes patagónicos. Los estudios abarcaron tanto aspectos estructurales como funcionales de la ecología de arroyos e incluyen el análisis de nutrientes y materia orgánica a lo largo de la cuenca, y relaciones alimentarias entre los diferentes componentes de sus tramas tróficas, desde productores primarios, descomponedores de detrito vegetal e invertebrados bentónicos hasta consumidores superiores como la trucha arcoíris. El objetivo de esta revisión fue integrar los resultados obtenidos sobre el funcionamiento de los sistemas fluviales de cabecera andino-patagónicos y su respuesta a factores de cambio espaciales (a lo largo de una cuenca) y temporales (entre estaciones). Finalmente, se destacan los conflictos y las amenazas más importantes que enfrentan estos sistemas (modificaciones en la cobertura vegetal, introducción de ganado, cambio climático) para señalar los aspectos que se deberían incorporar a las políticas de conservación, incluyendo un manejo sustentable de las actividades forestales y la cría de ganado.

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Una aproximación al funcionamiento de los arroyos de montaña del norte de la Patagonia Andina
Publicado
2021-03-04