Coevolución de cultivos domesticados y malezas asociadas

  • Antonio C. Guglielmini Depto. de Producción Vegetal, Fac. de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Claudio M. Ghersa IFEVA-CONICET, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Emilio H. Satorre Depto. de Producción Vegetal, Fac. de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Palabras clave: mecanismos evolutivos, procesos demográficos, malezas, cultivos

Resumen

Cultivos y malezas coevolucionan en las comunidades vegetales que se estructuran en los agroecosistemas. En este ensayo discutimos los mecanismos que determinan esta coevolución y los procesos que regulan el éxito de poblaciones individuales dentro de las comunidades cultivo-malezas. Tomamos ésto como punto de partida para evaluar e interpretar cuáles son los riesgos de promover especies invasivas a causa de cambios tecnológicos en las actividades agrícolas. Para ello, seguimos un marco conceptual que integra mecanismos coevolutivos (i.e. variabilidad genética, sistema reproductivo, fuerzas selectivas) y procesos demográficos (i.e. establecimiento, competencia, dispersión) como una forma de predecir no sólo cómo las malezas evolucionan en los campos agrícolas, interfiriendo así con la producción de alimentos y fibras, sino también para evaluar el riesgo de generar especies que puedan afectar otros ecosistemas.

Citas

AULD, BA & RG COOTE. 1990. Invade: Towards the simulation of plant spread. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 30: 121-128.

BAKER, HG. 1974. The evolution of weeds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5: 1-24.

BALLARÉ, CL; AL SCOPEL; CM GHERSA & RA SÁNCHEZ. 1987a. The demography of Datura ferox (L.) in soybean crops. Weed Res. 27: 91-102.

BALLARÉ, CL; AL SCOPEL; CM GHERSA & RA SÁNCHEZ. 1987b. The population ecology of Datura ferox in soybean crops. A simulation approach incorporating seed dispersal. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 19: 177-188.

BALLARÉ, CL; RA SÁNCHEZ; AL SCOPEL; JJ CASAL & CM GHERSA. 1987c. Early detection of neighbour plants y phytocrome perception of spectral changes in reflected sunlight. Plant Cell Environ. 10: 551-557.

BALLARÉ, CL & JJ CASAL. 2000. Light signals for crop and weed plants. Field Crops Res. 67: 149-160.

BARRETT, SCH. 1983. Crop mimicry in weeds. Econ. Bot. 37: 255-282.

BEGON, M; JL HARPER & CR TOWNSEND. 1996. Ecology: Individuals, populations and communities. 3rd edn. Blackwell Science. Oxford.

BENECH ARNOLD, RL; RA SÁNCHEZ; F FORCELLA; BC KRUK &. CM GHERSA. 2000. Environmental control of dormancy in weed seed banks in soil. Field Crops Res. 67: 105-122.

BOOTH, BD & CJ SWANTON. 2002. 50th Anniversary-Invited Article. Assembly theory applied to weed communities. Weed Sci. 50: 2-13.

CEPEDA, SA. 2002. Dinámica del banco de semillas de Tagetes minuta (L.) bajo distintos sistemas de labranza y cultivo. Tesis de Magister Scientiae. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Argentina.

COUSENS, R & M MORTIMER. 1995. Dynamics of weed populations. Cambridge University Press. UK. COX GW & MD ATKINS. 1979. Agricultural Ecology: An analysis of world food production systems. WH Freeman and Co.

CRAWLEY, MJ. 1987. What makes a community invasible? In: AJ Gray; M.J Crawley & PJ Edwards (eds). Colonisation, succession and stability pp. 429- 455. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Oxford. UK.

DE LA FUENTE, E; SA SUÁREZ; CM GHERSA & RJC LEÓN. 1999. Soybean weed community: relationships with cultural history and crop yield. Agron. J. 91:234-241.

DONG, M 1995. Morphological responses to local light conditions in clonal herbs from contrasting habitats, and their modification due to physiological integration. Oecologia 101: 282-288.

EHRLICH, PR & PH RAVEN. 1965. Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution 18: 596-608.

EVANS, LT. 1993. Crop evolution, adaptation and yield. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

EVANS, JP & ML CAIN. 1995. A spatially explicit test of foraging behaviour in a clonal plant. Ecology 76: 1147-1155.

FACELLI, JM & RJC LEÓN. 1986. El establecimiento espontáneo de árboles en la Pampa, Phytocoenología 14: 263-274.

FRYER, JD & RJ CHANCELLOR. 1970. Evidence of changing weed populations in arable lands. Proceedings of 10th British Weed Control Conference. Vol. 3, pp. 958-964.

GHERSA, CM; ML ROUSH; SR RADOSEVICH & S CORDRAY. 1994. Co-evolution of agroecosystems and weed management. BioScience 44: 85-94.

GHERSA, CM & RJC LEÓN. 1999. Successional changes in the agroecosystems of the Rolling Pampas. In: LR Walker (ed). Ecosystems of the Word. Ecosystems of disturbed ground. Chapter 20, pp. 487-502. Elsevier. Amsterdam.

GHERSA, CM; EB DE LA FUENTE; SA SUÁREZ & RJC LEÓN. 2001. Woody species invasion in the Rolling Pampas grasslands, Argentina, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 1792: 1-8.

GIL, A; C.M GHERSA & S PERELMAN. 2002. Root thiophenes in Tagetes minuta (L.) accessions from Argentina: genetic and environmental contribution to changes in concentration and composition. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 30: 1 –13.

GRANT, V. 1989. Hibridación natural y sus productos. En: Noriega (ed). Especiación Vegetal pp. 211-301. Limusa. Argentina.

GRIME, JP. 1979. Plant strategies and vegetation process. Wiley. New York.

GUGLIELMINI, AC & E.H SATORRE. 2002. Shading effects on spatial growth and biomass partitioning of Cynodon dactylon. Weed Res. 42: 123-134.

HAAS, H & JC STREIBIG. 1982. Changing patterns of weed distribution as a result of herbicide use and other agronomic factors. In: Le Baron MH & J Gressel (eds). Herbicide Resistance in Plants. Wiley. New York. USA.

HARLAN, JR & JMJ DE WET. 1965. Some thoughts about weeds. Econ. Bot. 19: 16-24

HARLAN, JR. 1982. Relationships between weeds and crops. In: W Holzner & M Numata (eds). Biology and Ecology of weeds. pp. 91-96. Dr. W. Junk Publishers. The Hague. Netherlands.

HARPER, JL. 1977. The population biology of plants. Academic Press. London. UK.

JASIENIUK, M; AL BRULE-BABEL & IN MORRISON. 1996. The evolution and genetics of herbicide resistance in weeds. Weed Sci. 44: 176-193.

JAUHAR, PP. 1993a. Cytogenetics of the Festuca- Lolium complex. Taxonomic treatments. In: Relevance to breeding. Monographs on theoretical and applied genetics 18. pp. 9-27. Springer Verlag. New York.

JAUHAR, PP. 1993b. Cytogenetics of the Festuca- Lolium complex. Karyotypes and species evolu- tion and divergence. In: Relevance to breeding. Monographs on theoretical and applied genetics 18. pp. 29-41. Springer -Verlag. New York.

JOENJE, W & MJ KROPFF. 1987. Relative time of emergence, leaf area development and plant height as major factors in crop-weed competition. Proceedings of the British Crop Protection Conference – Weeds 3: 971-978.

KROPFF, MJ & CJT SPITTERS. 1992. An eco-physiological model for interespecific competition, applied to the influence of Chenopodium album (L.) on sugar beet. I. Model description and parameterisation. Weed Res. 32: 437-50.

LEE, CE. 2002. Evolutionary genetics of invasive species. Trends Ecol. Evol. 8: 386-391.

LEÓN, RJC & A SUERO. 1962. Las comunidades de malezas de los maizales y su valor indicador. Rev. Arg. Agronomía 29: 23-28.

MADDONNI, GA & ME OTEGUI. 2004. Intra-specific competition in maize: early establishment of hierarchies among plants affects final kernel set. Field Crops Res. 85: 1-13.

MARTÍNEZ GHERSA, MA; CM GHERSA & EH SATORRE. 2000. Coevolution of agricultural systems and their weed companions: implications for research. Field Crops Res. 67: 181-190.

MAXWELL, BD & CM GHERSA. 1992. The influence of weed seed dispersion versus the effect of competition on crop yield. Weed Tech. 6: 196-204.

MCWHORTER, CG. 1971. Growth and development of Johnsongrass Ecotypes. Weed Sci. 2: 141-147.

ODUM, EP. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology, 3rd Ed. Saunders. Phyladelphia.

PALUMBI SR. 2001. Human as the world’s greatest evolutionary force. Science 293: 1786-1790.

PERELMAN, SB; RJC LEÓN, & M OESTERHELD. 2001. Cross-scale vegetation patterns of Flooding Pampa grasslands. J. Ecol. 89: 562-577.

RADOSEVICH, SR; JS HOLT & CM GHERSA. 1997. Weed ecology. Implications for management. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

RAJCAN, I & CJ SWANTON. 2001. Understanding maize-weed competition: resource competition, light quality and the whole plant. Field Crops Res. 71: 139-150.

SALISBURY, E. 1961. Weeds & Aliens. Collins St James’s Place. London. UK

SATORRE, EH. 1988. The competitive ability of spring cereals. PhD thesis. University of Reading, Reading. UK.

SAUER, JD. 1988. Plant migration. The dynamics of geographic patterning in seed plant species. University of California. Berkeley.

SCOPEL AL; CL BALLARÉ & SR RADOSEVICH. 1994. Photostimulation of seed germination during soil tillage. New Phytol. 126: 145-152.

SIMPSON, GM. 1990. Timing in dormancy. In: GM Simpson (ed). Seed dormancy in grasses. pp. 195- 231. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. UK.

SLADE, AJ & MJ HUTCHINGS. 1987. The effects of light intensity on foraging in the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. J. Ecol. 75: 639-650

SORIANO, A. 1971. Aspectos rítmicos o cíclicos del dinamismo de la comunidad vegetal. In: RH Mejía & JA Moguilevski (eds). Recientes adelantos en Biología. pp. 441-445. Buenos Aires. Argentina.

SOUTHERLAND, S. 2004. What makes a weed a weed: life story traits of native and exotic plants in the USA Population Ecology. Oecologia 141: 24-39.

SPITTERS, CJT & R AERTS. 1983. Simulation of competition for light and water in crop-weed associations. Aspects Appl. Biol. 4: 467-483.

TARRANT, RF. 1978. Attitudes toward red alder in the Douglas-fir region. In: DG Briggs; DS De Bell & WA Atkinson (eds). Utilization and management of alder. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW 70. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Portland. OR.

THOMSON, K & JP GRIME. 1979. Seasonal variation in the seed banks of herbaceous species in ten contrasting habitats. J. Ecol. 67: 893-921.

VITTA, JI & EH SATORRE. 1999. Validation of a weed: crop competition model. Weed Res. 39: 259-269

WARWICK, SI & L BLACK. 1994. Relative fitness of herbicide resistant and susceptible biotypes of weeds. Phytoprotection 75: 37-49.

WILLIAMSON, MH. 1996. Biological invasions. Chapman & Hall. London.

Publicado
2007-06-01
Sección
Debate