La cobertura de semillas y los períodos de sequía en la temporada de lluvias interfieren con el éxito de la siembra directa en la restauración de áreas mineras en las sabanas tropicales

  • Maurílio Assis Figueiredo Postgraduate Program in Crustal Evolution and Natural Resources, Federal University of Ouro Preto. Ouro Preto, Brazil
  • Maria C. Teixeira Braga Messias Department of Biodiversity, Evolution and Environment, Federal University of Ouro Preto. Ouro Preto, Brazil
  • Mariangela Garcia Praça Leite Department of Geology, Federal University of Ouro Preto. Ouro Preto, Brazil
  • Alessandra Rodrigues Kozovits Department of Biodiversity, Evolution and Environment, Federal University of Ouro Preto. Ouro Preto, Brazil
Palabras clave: técnicas de restauración activa, germinación, recuperación de minas, masa de semillas, tierra vegetal

Resumen

Entre las limitaciones para el uso de la siembra directa en la restauración ecológica de áreas severamente degradadas en las sabanas tropicales se destaca la asociación entre períodos de sequía y el sustrato inhóspito. En este trabajo se evaluó si la cobertura de las semillas por una capa de suelo y si la adición de una fina capa de tierra vegetal (topsoil) al sustrato degradado interfieren con el establecimiento de las plantas nativas en un área degradada. También se midió cómo las variaciones en las precipitaciones afectan los resultados de la siembra directa durante el período de estudio. Se evaluó el establecimiento de plántulas de siete especies nativas bajo cuatro condiciones diferentes: 1) sembradas sobre sustrato degradado, 2) cubiertas por una capa de 1 cm del sustrato degradado, 3) sembradas sobre una capa de tierra vegetal (topsoil) de 1 cm, y 4) cubiertas por una capa de 1 cm de tierra vegetal. En general, las especies con semillas más pequeñas mostraron mayores porcentajes de establecimiento en los tratamientos en que las semillas se depositaron sobre el sustrato. Las leguminosas, que tienen semillas más grandes, lograron mejores porcentajes de establecimiento cuando sus semillas estaban cubiertas por el sustrato. La adición de tierra vegetal fue beneficiosa para Bulbostylis fimbriata —Cyperaceae—, mientras que para las otras especies no tuvo ningún efecto o fue perjudicial. Los datos también mostraron que la cantidad y distribución de la lluvia afecta los porcentajes de establecimiento. La siembra directa es una alternativa ventajosa para la restauración ecológica de áreas degradadas en las sabanas tropicales. Incrementar el conocimiento del manejo de la siembra y el comportamiento de las especies nativas puede contribuir a mejorar la eficiencia de esta técnica

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Seed covering and dry periods in the rainy season interfere with direct seeding success in the restoration of post-mined grasslands
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2021-08-13
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