El uso de bloques nutricionales como herramienta para el manejo del pastoreo en sistemas ovinos extensivos

  • Sebastián G. Ormaechea EEA INTA Manfredi. Manfredi, Córdoba, Argentina
  • Pablo A. Cipriotti Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). FAUBA-IFEVA
  • Roberto Distel Departamento de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional del Sur (CONICET). Centro de Recursos Naturales Renovables de la Zona Semiárida (CONICET)
  • Pablo L. Peri Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). EEA INTA Santa Cruz. Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral
Palabras clave: manejo extensivo, área de campeo, pastoreo homogéneo, uso del paisaje, movimiento del ganado, Patagonia, suplemento multinutricional

Resumen

Mejorar la distribución espacial del pastoreo es importante para lograr el objetivo de un uso eficiente y sustentable de los pastizales naturales. Sin embargo, los sistemas ganaderos extensivos como los que se utilizan en pastizales de la Patagonia generalmente fallan debido a la gran extensión de los cuadros de pastoreo (hasta 6000 ha). El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la efectividad del uso estratégico de bloques nutricionales como elementos atractivos en áreas subutilizadas del paisaje; específicamente, en una estepa arbustiva de baja cobertura (menos de 50%), bajo un clima árido. La distribución espacial de ovinos fue evaluada en dos cuadros de pastoreo extensivo (1900 y 5500 ha) a través de dos tratamientos secuenciales (Con bloques nutricionales y Manejo tradicional sin bloques nutricionales), en dos años. Para el estudio se emplearon capones (carneros castrados) de la raza Corriedale, bajo una carga animal promedio de 0.17±0.03 ovinos/ha. La geolocalización de los capones se obtuvo mediante collares equipados con sistemas de posicionamiento global, configurados con una frecuencia de medición de 5 minutos en un período de 15 días. El uso de bloques nutricionales resultó en una expansión de 46.1-57.4% del área diaria de campeo con respecto al manejo tradicional, lo que sugiere que los ovinos hicieron un uso espacial más homogéneo de los cuadros. Estos resultados podrían tener importantes implicancias prácticas, considerando que utilizar bloques nutricionales permitiría combinar estrategias de suplementación con el uso sustentable de los recursos pastoriles.

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The use of nutritional blocks as a tool for grazing management in extensive sheep husbandry
Publicado
2021-09-05
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