Floraciones tóxicas de cianobacterias en una laguna pampeana: Una aproximación a su ecología desde los rasgos morfofisiológicos

  • Fiorella Cocciolo Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Instituto IEGEBA (CONICET-UBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Lilen Yema Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Instituto IEGEBA (CONICET-UBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • M. Laura Sánchez
  • Carolina González Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Instituto IEGEBA (CONICET-UBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Centro de investigaciones, Agua y Saneamientos Argentinos, CABA, Argentina.
  • Inés O'Farrell Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Instituto IEGEBA (CONICET-UBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Palabras clave: Cyanobacteria, eutrofización, cianotoxinas, Salada de Monasterio

Resumen

Se realizó la caracterización ecológica del ensamble de cianobacterias formadoras de floraciones de la laguna Salada de Monasterio (SM), provincia de Buenos Aires. Se detectó que la abundancia, la biomasa y la morfología de las especies estuvieron afectadas por las condiciones ambientales de la laguna durante dos períodos cálidos con diferentes niveles hídricos que incidieron en la turbidez y la concentración de fósforo. SM estuvo seriamente afectada por floraciones de cianobacterias tóxicas dominadas por Raphidiopsis mediterranea, acompañada por Planktothrix agardhii, Anabaenopsis cf. circularis, A. cunningtonii y Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi en el primer período, y por C. issatschenkoi en el segundo. La abundancia y el biovolumen total de ambos períodos se correlacionaron positivamente y se registró una menor densidad de cianobacterias en el segundo período, con mayor nivel hídrico. En ambos períodos se superó tanto el nivel de alerta 2 para agua de bebida como el nivel guía 2 para aguas de recreación (Organización Mundial de la Salud, OMS) para la abundancia de células de cianobacterias. Entre las especies se detectaron diferencias morfológicas asociadas a respuestas a la disponibilidad de la luz en la columna de agua. En R. mediterranea se evidenció una asociación directa entre la longitud y el ancho del filamento que favorece el desarrollo, incluso en escenarios con elevada turbidez y limitación de luz, donde las demás especies no fueron detectadas. El nitrógeno orgánico disuelto (NOD) sería la fuente principal de nitrógeno debido a su elevada concentración (media: 3.76 mg/L). La frecuencia de acinetas en Anabaenopsis y C. issatschenkoi fue baja, lo que indica un escenario favorable para su desarrollo. La concentración de microcistina (-LR e -YR) en el primer período superó 1 µg/L (nivel guía OMS), siendo P. agardhii y Anabaenopsis las potenciales productoras de esta toxina; no se detectó saxitoxina.

Citas

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Floraciones tóxicas de cianobacterias en una laguna pampeana: Una aproximación a su ecología desde los rasgos morfofisiológicos
Publicado
2021-10-02