Efectos alelopáticos de plantas de Cynodon dactylon L. en praderas naturales invadidas

  • Daniella Bresciano Departamento de Sistemas Ambientales, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República. Montevideo, Uruguay
  • Nicolás Glison Departamento de Biología Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República. Montevideo, Uruguay
  • Felipe Lezama Departamento de Sistemas Ambientales, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República. Montevideo, Uruguay
Palabras clave: fertilización, intensificación, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum dilatatum

Resumen

Con el objetivo de explorar las causas del éxito invasor de Cynodon dactylon en pastizales intersembrados con leguminosas y fertilizados con fósforo, se evaluó el efecto alelopático de los extractos acuosos de plantas de esta especie invasora —provenientes de un pastizal natural y de un pastizal con intersiembra con leguminosas y fertilización con fósforo— sobre las gramíneas nativas Paspalum notatum y Paspalum dilatatum. Debido a lo observado en pastizales fertilizados, donde la cobertura de C. dactylon aumenta, la de P. notatum decrece y P. dilatatum no es afectado, se esperaba que los aleloquímicos de la invasora provenientes de los pastizales intersembrados y fertilizados afectaran negativamente a P. notatum. Se evaluó el efecto de extractos acuosos de hojas frescas de C. dactylon de un pastizal natural y de un pastizal intersembrado y fertilizado con fósforo sobre la germinación, el crecimiento y el desarrollo de las dos gramíneas nativas. Contrariamente a lo esperado, no se registró un efecto inhibitorio de los tratamientos sobre la germinación y las plantas adultas en otoño, sino un aumento en la germinación de ambas especies regadas con extractos provenientes de pastizal intersembrado y fertilizado. En cambio, en primavera, la respuesta fue neutra. Los resultados no indican que los extractos acuosos de hojas frescas tengan un efecto alelopático que explique el éxito invasor de C. dactylon y el decrecimiento de P. notatum en pastizales fertilizados. Se deben considerar otras aproximaciones para su estudio.

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Efectos alelopáticos de plantas de Cynodon dactylon L. en praderas naturales invadidas
Publicado
2022-06-07