Riesgos y oportunidades asociados a la conservación de los polinizadores y a la gestión de los servicios de polinización en América Latina

  • Leonardo Galetto Departamento de Diversidad Biológica y Ecología, FCEF y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (UNC) - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (IMBIV), Córdoba, Argentina
  • Marcelo A. Aizen Laboratorio Ecotono, INIBIOMA, Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET, Río Negro, Argentina
  • María del Coro Arizmendi Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Tlalnepantla, México, México
  • Breno M. Freitas Universidade Federal do Ceará, Departamento de Zootecnia, Setor de Abelhas, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
  • Lucas A. Garibaldi Universidad Nacional de Río Negro, Instituto de Investigaciones en Recursos Naturales, Agroecología y Desarrollo Rural, Río Negro, Argentina. . Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, and Instituto de Investigaciones en Recursos Naturales, Agroecología y Desarrollo Rural, Río Negro, Argentina
  • Tereza C. Giannini Instituto Tecnológico Vale Desenvolvimento Sustentavel, Belem, Para, Brazil
  • Ariadna V. Lopes Departamento de Botánica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
  • Mário M. Do Espírito Santo Departamento de Biologia Geral/CCBS Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, MG, Brasil
  • Márcia M. Maués Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Laboratório de Entomologia, Belém, Pará, Brazil
  • Guiomar Nates-Parra Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá DC, Colombia
  • Jaime I. Rodríguez Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Bolivia, La Paz, Bolivia
  • José J. G. Quezada-Euán Departamento de Apicultura Tropical-FMVZ-Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, México
  • Remy Vandame El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, México
  • Blandina F. Viana Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
  • Vera L. Imperatriz-Fonseca Instituto Tecnológico Vale Desenvolvimento Sustentavel, Belem, Para, Brazil
Palabras clave: biodiversidad, políticas ambientales, déficit de polinización, disminución de polinizadores, servicios de polinización, conocimiento local tradicional

Resumen

Se realizó una revisión sobre el estado de conservación de los polinizadores y la polinización en América Latina (LA). Se presentan pautas para mejorar las oportunidades de conservación, considerando las amenazas a los polinizadores y las perspectivas desde el conocimiento tradicional y local. El análisis indica que diversas amenazas (e.g., agricultura a gran escala, deforestación, uso excesivo de agroquímicos) están vinculadas con la disminución de polinizadores, afectando la reproducción de las plantas nativas y los rendimientos de muchos cultivos. LA alberga la mayor diversidad de abejas en todo el mundo y una gran diversidad de polinizadores vertebrados (e.g., colibríes, aves de percha nectarívoras, murciélagos nectarívoros y otros mamíferos). Se proporcionan recomendaciones para proteger los polinizadores nativos y mejorar los servicios de polinización, las que podrían ser consideradas por los tomadores de decisiones y así promover la conservación biocultural. Por ejemplo, desarrollar instrumentos legales, políticas e incentivos para ayudar a los agricultores a mantener los hábitats naturales, para reemplazar o reducir el uso de agroquímicos y para promover las prácticas agroecológicas; perfeccionar las reglamentaciones sobre aplicación de agroquímicos para minimizar la exposición de los polinizadores a insecticidas y herbicidas; mejorar la comunicación pública del conocimiento sobre los polinizadores y la polinización para incentivar un cambio en las prácticas agrícolas hegemónicas y los patrones de consumo actuales; considerar otras éticas ambientales de las minorías étnicas para enfatizar la necesidad de promover una relación sostenible entre producción de alimentos y biodiversidad. Se necesita urgentemente una visión más amplia que combine las dimensiones sociales, ecológicas y culturales para una mejor toma de decisiones. Esta perspectiva socio-agroecológica holística es importante para conservar y gestionar los polinizadores a diferentes escalas espaciales y temporales, y para poder integrar los servicios de polinización con enfoques de gestión del territorio favorables a los polinizadores y con sistemas agrícolas diversificados.

Citas

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Publicado
2022-01-11