Caracterización de ecotonos entre biomas de bosque y biomas abiertos en un área protegida en Uruguay

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  • Verónica Etchebarne-Palla Departamento de Ecología y Gestión Ambiental, Centro Universitario de la Región Este, Universidad de la República. Maldonado, Uruguay. Área Biodiversidad y Conservación, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura. Montevideo, Uruguay
  • Oscar Blumetto Programa de Producción y Sustentabilidad Ambiental, Estación Experimental INIA Las Brujas, Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria. Canelones, Uruguay
  • Ángel M. Segura Modelización y Análisis de recursos naturales, Centro Universitario Regional Este, Universidad de la República. Rocha, Uruguay
  • Ariel A. Farías Departamento de Ecología y Gestión Ambiental, Centro Universitario de la Región Este, Universidad de la República. Maldonado, Uruguay. Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), P. Universidad Catoìlica de Chile. Santiago, Chile
  • Laura Cappuccio Departamento de Ecología y Gestión Ambiental, Centro Universitario de la Región Este, Universidad de la República. Maldonado, Uruguay
  • Álvaro Soutullo Departamento de Ecología y Gestión Ambiental, Centro Universitario de la Región Este, Universidad de la República. Maldonado, Uruguay
Palabras clave: árboles, arbustos, ganadería, fuego, ovino, vacuno, pastizales, arbustales, conservación

Resumen

La teoría de Estados Alternativos de Biomas (EAB) contribuye a explicar la presencia de biomas abiertos (pastizales, arbustales) en ambientes suficientemente cálidos y húmedos para el desarrollo de biomas de bosque. En estos ambientes se pueden encontrar áreas dominadas por biomas abiertos que, según esta teoría, responden principalmente al fuego y a la herbivoría. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar si existen diferentes tipos de ecotonos entre biomas de bosque-biomas abiertos en base a la composición leñosa, describirlos y explorar su relación con el manejo ganadero y las condiciones ambientales, utilizando como caso de estudio un área protegida en Uruguay. Muestreamos la vegetación leñosa y otras variables ambientales en transectas (delimitadas en 200 m) en 10 sitios que abarcan cuatro manejos ganaderos. Identificamos dos tipos de ecotonos entre bioma de bosque y bioma abierto. Uno, dominado por arbustal, y otro, dominado por pastizal. Nuestros resultados concuerdan con la teoría de EAB en que los mecanismos que parecen determinar la composición leñosa y la estructura de la vegetación en ecotonos son el ganado y uso de fuego o segadora. Los cambios en la estructura de la vegetación y en la riqueza de leñosas fue, en parte, abrupto, en coincidencia con lo que propone esta teoría. Sin embargo, la composición también interactuó con factores de sitio como la rocosidad y la distancia al curso de agua, lo cual sugiere que variables ambientales a nivel de sitio estarían actuando de forma sinérgica con la remoción de la vegetación para determinar la composición de la vegetación. Encontramos que estos ecotonos son sensibles a manejos y variables ambientales, por lo que es necesario incorporar esta heterogeneidad de paisaje y de sitio para articular la actividad productiva con la conservación de la naturaleza.

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Caracterización de ecotonos entre biomas de bosque y biomas abiertos en un área protegida en Uruguay
Publicado
2022-06-02