¿Cómo afecta el ganado doméstico a la biomasa y la fecundidad de distintos tipos sucesionales de especies en el Monte Patagónico?

  • Y. Ivón Pelliza Laboratorio ECOTONO, INIBIOMA-CONICET. Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina
  • Cintia P. Souto Laboratorio ECOTONO, INIBIOMA-CONICET. Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina
  • Mariana Tadey Laboratorio ECOTONO, INIBIOMA-CONICET. Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina
Palabras clave: especies intermedias, especies tardías, especies tempranas, ganado exótico, herbívoros, Monte Austral, plantas nativas

Resumen

La respuesta de las plantas a los disturbios se relaciona con sus características fisiológicas, sus formas de vida y su función dentro de la comunidad. Evaluamos la respuesta, en términos de biomasa y fecundidad, de los distintos tipos sucesionales de especies (colonizadoras, intermedias y tardías) del Monte Patagónico a un gradiente de carga ganadera (unidades ganaderas.año.ha-1). La biomasa la estimamos mediante el tamaño de las plantas consumidas (diámetro x altura) y la fecundidad a través del esfuerzo reproductivo (% de ramas reproductivas) y del porcentaje de semillas viables producido. Observamos que el ramoneo disminuyó la biomasa y la fecundidad de las plantas, tanto ramas reproductivas como semillas viables. Sin embargo, los tipos sucesionales de especies mostraron diferente producción de semillas viables en respuesta a la intensidad de pastoreo. Con el aumento del ganado se redujo el tamaño de especies colonizadoras, aumentó el de las intermedias, y el tamaño de las tardías no cambió significativamente. En general, el aumento del ramoneo afectó negativamente el esfuerzo reproductivo de todas las especies. A pesar de ello, las colonizadoras e intermedias aumentaron la producción de semillas viables, mientras que las tardías la disminuyeron. Estos resultados sugieren que las especies tardías son las más afectadas por el ganado en términos de fecundidad, lo que podría reducir su reclutamiento. El aumento de su biomasa con la carga ganadera en especies intermedias sugiere una respuesta compensatoria que podría otorgarles una ventaja a corto plazo. La pérdida de tejido que sufren las plantas por consumo del ganado impacta en la cantidad de semillas, pero, además, podría tener consecuencias en la tasa y el momento de germinación de la progenie. Los resultados ayudan a comprender la dinámica de las comunidades frente a los disturbios, y aportan información útil para elaborar estrategias de manejo y restauración de ecosistemas áridos.

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¿Cómo afecta el ganado doméstico a la biomasa y la fecundidad de distintos tipos sucesionales de especies en el Monte Patagónico?
Publicado
2022-07-07