Desentrañando las interacciones negativas entre humanos, mamíferos carnívoros y rapaces en América del Sur

  • Fernando Ballejo Grupo de Investigaciones en Biología de la Conservación, INIBIOMA-CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Comahue. San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina
  • Pablo Plaza Grupo de Investigaciones en Biología de la Conservación, INIBIOMA-CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Comahue. San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina
  • Agustina di Virgilio Grupo de Investigaciones en Biología de la Conservación, INIBIOMA-CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Comahue. San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina
  • Mauro Lucherini Grupo de Ecología Comportamental de Mamíferos (GECM), Depto. de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS). Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur, Universidad Nacional del Sur - CONICET. Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Pablo Gáspero INTA-EEA Bariloche. San C. de Bariloche, Argentina
  • María M. Guerisoli División Mastozoología, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” (MACN-CONICET). Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)
  • Andrés Novaro Instituto de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA) - CONICET - Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Wildlife Conservation Society - Argentina
  • Martín Funes Wildlife Conservation Society - Argentina
  • Sergio A. Lambertucci Grupo de Investigaciones en Biología de la Conservación, INIBIOMA-CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Comahue. San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina
Palabras clave: carnívoros, conflicto humano-fauna, control letal, depredación, rapaces

Resumen

Las interacciones entre el ser humano y la fauna silvestre pueden ser negativas cuando las necesidades y el comportamiento de la fauna silvestre influyen negativamente en las metas de las personas, o viceversa, y manejar estas interacciones puede generar conflictos. En este artículo revisamos la información científica sobre este tipo de interacciones en 136 publicaciones realizadas en Sudamérica. Nos centramos en los mamíferos depredadores terrestres y en las aves rapaces . Encontramos que la mayoría de los estudios se realizaron en Brasil, Argentina, Chile y Colombia. La metodología más utilizada fueron las entrevistas a habitantes de zonas rurales. Los estudios se realizaron principalmente sobre interacciones con grandes félidos como Panthera onca y Puma concolor, y —en menor medida— sobre otros mamíferos depredadores y aves rapaces como las águilas o las aves carroñeras. Los impulsores principales de estas interacciones fueron los impactos -percibidos o reales- sobre la economía (materiales) como pérdidas de ganado o cultivos, o aspectos no materiales (intangibles) como miedo, mitos y creencias religiosas. Los estudios mostraron que las actitudes y percepciones negativas hacia los mamíferos depredadores y las aves rapaces están muy extendidas en Sudamérica. Aunque se propusieron estrategias no letales para mitigar las interacciones negativas, la mayoría no se utiliza ampliamente y los controles letales siguen siendo muy comunes. Se requiere un enfoque multidisciplinario, basado en diversas acciones (e.g., mejorar las prácticas ganaderas, realizar programas educativos, aumentar la participación de las partes interesadas, proporcionar soluciones a los agricultores) que minimicen las interacciones negativas y promuevan la coexistencia entre los seres humanos y la fauna silvestre. Esto es clave para conservar las especies amenazadas, fomentar las interacciones ecológicas y mantener entornos saludables en los paisajes antropizados de la biodiversa Sudamérica.

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Unravelling negative interactions between humans, mammalian carnivores and raptors in South America
Publicado
2022-04-23
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Sección
Sección Especial