Redes de interacciones ecológicas. Qué sabemos, qué no, y por qué importa

  • Diego P. Vázquez§ Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas, CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Mendoza, Argentina. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Mendoza, Argentina
  • Guadalupe Peralta§ Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal, CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Córdoba, Argentina
  • Luciano Cagnolo Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal, CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Córdoba, Argentina
  • Micaela Santos Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas, CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Mendoza, Argentina
  • § Estos autores contribuyeron por igual
Palabras clave: cambio global, fuerza de interacción, modularidad, anidamiento, nodos de redes, procesos neutrales, procesos de nicho, efectos de muestreo, interacciones interespecíficas, roles de las especies

Resumen

Las especies que coexisten en las comunidades ecológicas interactúan de diferentes modos y forman redes complejas. Presentamos una revisión de la creciente literatura sobre redes de interacciones ecológicas para abordar varias cuestiones clave sobre este enfoque conceptual y metodológico. Comenzamos con la pregunta más básica: por qué estudiar redes y si un enfoque de redes es (o no es) útil para comprender la ecología de las especies que interactúan, el funcionamiento y la estabilidad de las comunidades a las que pertenecen y su respuesta a los impulsores del cambio global. También discutimos los múltiples significados de los nodos como individuos, poblaciones y especies, las diferentes formas de cuantificar los roles de los nodos, los numerosos significados de los enlaces como presencia/ausencia de interacciones, fuerza de interacción per cápita y efectos a nivel de especie, y los enfoques disponibles para estudiar redes que incluyen diferentes tipos de interacciones. Luego, ofrecemos una reseña de los patrones estructurales que emergen en las redes de interacciones ecológicas y de los mecanismos que determinan la estructura y el funcionamiento de las interacciones e identificamos lo que ya sabemos y los vacíos de conocimiento que todavía necesitamos llenar. También discutimos los efectos de muestreo y su influencia distorsionando los patrones observados en las redes. Finalmente, discutimos cómo los diferentes impulsores del cambio global influencian la estructura, la dinámica y la estabilidad de las redes ecológicas. Con esta revisión esperamos ofrecer una reseña equilibrada de lo que hemos aprendido en el estudio de las redes de interacciones ecológicas y señalamos varias prioridades de investigación para la próxima década.

Citas

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Ecological interaction networks. What we know, what we don’t, and why it matters
Publicado
2022-07-14