Efecto de la transición antropogénica desde ecosistemas forestales a ecosistemas sin árboles sobre la descomposición de broza

  • Natalia Pérez Harguindeguy Departamento de Diversidad Biológica y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales–Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
  • Ana M. Cingolani Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
  • Lucas Enrico Departamento de Diversidad Biológica y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales–Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
  • María V. Vaieretti Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
  • Melisa A. Giorgis Departamento de Diversidad Biológica y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales–Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
  • María L. Moreno Instituto de Ecorregiones Andinas (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Jujuy)
  • Valeria Falczuk Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
  • Diego E. Gurvich Departamento de Diversidad Biológica y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales–Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
  • Gustavo A. Bertone Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
  • Sandra M. Díaz Departamento de Diversidad Biológica y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales–Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
  • Marcelo R. Cabido Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
Palabras clave: deforestación, pérdida de masa de broza, materiales estándar, descomponibilidad, calidad de broza, broza leñosa, Sub-Andino, Chaco Serrano, Espinal, Chaco Árido

Resumen

La transformación de los bosques en paisajes sin árboles como resultado del disturbio (transiciones de deforestación) es un proceso en desarrollo en muchos lugares del mundo. En este trabajo revisamos el contexto histórico de estas transformaciones y luego nos enfocamos en sus consecuencias sobre la descomposición. También presentamos un estudio de caso basado en cuatro sistemas del centro de la Argentina (Sub-Andino, Bosque Montano, Espinal y Chaco Árido) en los que evaluamos cómo las transiciones de deforestación pueden modificar la descomposición de mezclas naturales de broza incubadas in situ al modificar sus controles. Mostramos que aunque existen evidencias de las consecuencias de las transiciones de deforestación en las condiciones climáticas locales y en la calidad de la broza, no está claro cómo esos cambios impactarán en la descomposición de las mezclas naturales de broza a campo. En nuestro estudio de caso mostramos que las transiciones de deforestación no generan un cambio en la descomposición de sustratos estándar, pero sí aumentan consistentemente la descomponibilidad de las mezclas naturales de broza. Posiblemente, como consecuencia de este patrón, la descomposición de mezclas de broza in situ aumenta cuando los bosques se transformaron en fisonomías sin árboles a lo largo de todos los sistemas analizados. Más allá de nuestros hallazgos, nuestro análisis destaca la necesidad de entender el comportamiento de los controles de la descomposición para interpretar adecuadamente su integración en la descomposición de mezclas in situ y las consecuencias de la deforestación en el reciclado de carbono y nutrientes. En concordancia con nuestros resultados, la literatura reciente muestra que la presencia de broza no-foliar y las variaciones del ambiente local tendrían un rol importante en el reciclado de C y nutrientes, incluso a escalas regionales.

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How human-induced transitions from forest to treeless ecosystems affect litter decomposition
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2022-05-17
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