Cambios en la composición de la comunidad bacteriana de diferentes hábitats a lo largo de un río contaminado ( Río Suquía, Córdoba, Argentina)

Cambios en la composición de la comunidad bacteriana de diferentes hábitats a lo largo de un río contaminado (Río Suquía, Córdoba, Argentina)

Carolina Merlo, María V. Amé, Lidwina Bertrand, Adriana Abril


El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la influencia de la contaminación del Río Suquía sobre la composición de la comunidad bacteriana en agua, suelo de ribera y sedimentos en dos períodos de caudal de agua. Para ello se tomaron muestras de los tres hábitats (agua, sedimento, y suelo de ribera) en cinco sitios contaminados y un sitio de referencia a lo largo del Río Suquía en las épocas de alto y bajo caudal de agua. Se midió "in situ" el pH, el oxígeno disuelto, la temperatura y la conductividad del agua, mientras que en todas las muestras se determinó el contenido de carbono orgánico total, nitrato y amonio. Además, se midió el pH, la conductividad y el contenido de N total en sedimento y suelo de ribera. La composición de la comunidad bacteriana del agua, sedimento y suelo de ribera se analizó mediante polimorfismo de fragmentos largos de restricción del gen 16S ARNr. Los resultados mostraron que la composición de la comunidad bacteriana del agua fue diferente de la del sedimento y suelo de ribera. De acuerdo al análisis de redundancia realizado los cambios en la composición de la comunidad bacteriana en el Río Suquía fueron principalmente correlacionados con el oxígeno disuelto, la conductividad y el pH. La composición de la comunidad bacteriana en agua fue muy variable entre sitios y períodos de caudal de agua, mientras que la comunidad bacteriana de los sedimentos difiere según el período de flujo de agua asociado a la variación de temperatura. Por último, en el suelo de rivera se evidenciaron diferencias entre las comunidades bacterianas de los sitios localizadas antes y después de la ciudad de Córdoba. Estos resultados mostraron que existen diferentes patrones de distribución en la composición de la comunidad bacteriana de los tres hábitats evaluados.

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