Factores que afectan el tamaño del ámbito hogareño de felinos (Mammalia, Carnívora), con énfasis en tres especies americanas

Factores que afectan el tamaño del ámbito hogareño de felinos (Mammalia, Carnívora), con énfasis en tres especies americanas

Renata Figueira Machado, Felipe Cerezer, Carla Hendges, Nilton Cáceres


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los factores que influyen en el tamaño del ámbito hogareño de felinos en los niveles inter- e intraespecífico. En nivel interespecífico, evaluamos la influencia de la masa corporal en el ámbito hogareño de 19 especies de felinos, controlando la filogenia. A nivel de especies, evaluamos el efecto del sexo y el hábitat (abierto vs. cerrado) sobre el ámbito hogareño de tres especies de felinos americanos, Panthera onca, Leopardus pardalis y Puma concolor, para los cuales existe una buena cantidad de información. Los datos de masa corporal, sexo y ámbito hogareño fueron extraídos de la base de datos Pantheria (para 19 especies, para comparación interespecífica) y 48 estudios para la variación intraespecífica. Evaluamos la influencia de la masa corporal en el tamaño del ámbito hogareño de felinos utilizando un análisis filogenético de los mínimos cuadrados generalizados. Evaluamos la existencia de dimorfismo sexual en el ámbito hogareño y la masa corporal usando una prueba t pareada. Finalmente, investigamos la influencia del hábitat en el ámbito hogareño utilizando un modelo ANOVA. Nuestros resultados mostraron que el tamaño del ámbito hogareño está asociado positivamente con la masa corporal en felinos. A nivel intraespecífico, confirmamos que la masa corporal y el ámbito hogareño de los machos son mayores que los de las hembras en P. onca y L. pardalis y P. concolor. Además, el ámbito hogareño de P. onca aumenta en hábitats abiertos (i.e., pastizales, desiertos y matorrales), tal como se esperaba. En general, nuestros resultados confirman que los mayores ámbitos hogareños están asociados con un tamaño corporal más grande en los animales que necesitan más recursos alimentarios o recursos específicos (como presas para felinos) para satisfacer las tasas metabólicas. Además, el ámbito hogareño de los tres felinos parece estar muy influenciado por los atributos de reproducción, así como por la calidad del hábitat. Esto sugiere una conexión con la distribución espacial de alimentos (presas) y las oportunidades de apareamiento.

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