La leña como vía para la introducción de insectos. ¿Cuáles son los riesgos de las invasiones de hormigas en la Patagonia?

La leña como vía para la introducción de insectos. ¿Cuáles son los riesgos de las invasiones de hormigas en la Patagonia?

Victoria Werenkraut, Gabriela I. Pirk, María N. Lescano, José D. Benclowicz, Luciana Elizalde


La leña puede actuar como vector de dispersión de insectos a larga distancia, tanto dentro como entre países. Recientemente encontramos en Patagonia a la hormiga carpintera exótica Camponotus mus en leña transportada desde el centro de la Argentina. Esta especie tiene potencial invasor, y en su rango nativo genera pérdidas económicas significativas. Además, el calentamiento global y el incremento de los disturbios antrópicos en los ecosistemas Patagónicos los vuelven muy susceptible a las invasiones de insectos. Esto es especialmente alarmante dada la falta de controles sanitarios en el transporte de bienes hacia la región. Para prevenir introducciones de insectos a través de la leña es necesario un esfuerzo conjunto de la comunidad científica, los organismos de control, el gobierno y los usuarios finales.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


Aizen, M. 2014. Introducción. Pages 13-18 in E. Raffaele, M. de Torres Curth, C. L. Morales, and T. Kitzberger (eds.). Ecología e Historia Natural de la Patagonia Andina, un cuarto de siglo de investigación en Biogeografía, Ecología y Conservación. Fundación Azara, Buenos Aires.

Akre, R. D., L. D. Hansen, and E. A. Myhre. 1995. Insect Life: My House or Yours? The Biology of Carpenter Ants. American Entomologist 41:221-226.

Aranda-Rickert, A., and S. Fracchia. 2012. Are subordinate ants the best seed dispersers? Linking dominance hierarchies and seed dispersal ability in myrmecochory interactions. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 6:297-306.

Benclowicz, J. D. 2012. Migraciones y representaciones populares en una ciudad turística. Notas sobre San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Diálogo Andino 40:83-96.

Boissin, E., B. Hurley, M. J. Wingfield, R. Vasaitis, J. Stenlid, C. Davis, P. de Groot, R. Ahumada, A. Carnegie, and A. Goldarazena. 2012. Retracing the routes of introduction of invasive species: the case of the Sirex noctilio woodwasp. Molecular Ecology 21:5728-5744.

Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina. 1963. Decreto-Ley 6704/1963 Artículo 3, 20/08/1963.

Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina. 2006. Resolución 630/2006, SENASA, 18/09/2006.

Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina. 2012. Resolución 332/2012, SENASA, 11/07/2012.

Bueno, O. C. 1997. Formigas urbanas: identifiçao e controle. Biológico (São Paulo) 59:17-19.

Burke, M. J. W., and J. P. Grime. 1996. An experimental study of plant community invasibility. Ecology 77:776-790.

Byers, J. E. 2002. Impact of non-indigenous species on natives enhanced by anthropogenic alteration of selection regimes. Oikos 97:449-458.

Cameron, R. S., C. Bates, and J. Johnson. 2008. Distribution and spread of laurel wilt disease in Georgia: 2006-08 survey and field observations. Georgia Forestry Commission report. September 2008 Pp. 28.

Cardoso, M., A. Ladio, S. Dutrus, and M. Lozada. 2015. Preference and calorific value of fuelwood species in rural populations in northwestern Patagonia. Biomass and Bioenergy 81:514-520.

Chacón de Ulloa, P. 2003. Hormigas urbanas. Pp. 351-359 in F. Fernández (ed.). Introducción a las hormigas de la región Neotropical. Instituto de investigación de recursos biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá.

Coleman, T. W., and S. J. Seybold. 2008. Previously unrecorded damage to oak, Quercus spp., in southern California by the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 84:288-300.

Crocker, S. J., G. J. Brand, and D. C. Little. 2007. Illinois’ forest resources, 2005. Resour. Bull. NRS-13. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA.

Davis, M. A., J. P. Grime, and K. Thompson. 2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. Journal of Ecology 88:528-534.

Della Lucia, T. M. C. 2003. Hormigas de importancia económica en la región Neotropical. Pp. 337-349 in F. Fernández (ed.). Introducción a las hormigas de la región Neotropical. Instituto de investigación de recursos biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá.

DeRivera, C. E., G. M. Ruiz, A. H. Hines, and P. Jivoff. 2005. Biotic resistance to invasion: native predator limits abundance and distribution of an introduced crab. Ecology 86:3364-3376.

Drake, J. A., H. A. Mooney, F. di Castri, R. H. Groves, F. J. Kruger, M. Rejmánek, and M. Williamson. 1989. Biological invasions: a global perspective. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Dukes, J. S., and H. A. Mooney. 1999. Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:135-139.

Elton, C. S. 1958. Ecology of invasions by animals and plants. Methuen, London.

Fergnani, P. N., P. Sackmann, and A. Ruggiero. 2010. Richness-environment relationships in epigaeic ants across the Subantarctic-Patagonian transition zone. Insect Conservation and Diversity 3:278-290.

Forel, A. 1874. Les fourmis de la Suisse: Systématique, notices anatomiques et physiologiques, architecture, distribution géographique, nouvelles expériences et observations de moeurs. Société Helvétique.

Haack, R. A., T. R. Petrice, and A. C. Wiedenhoeft. 2010. Incidence of bark-and wood-boring insects in firewood: a survey at Michigan’s Mackinac Bridge. Journal of Economic Entomology 103:1682-1692.

Hanks, L. 1999. Influence of the larval host plant on reproductive strategies of cerambycid beetles. Annual review of entomology 44:483-505.

Hee, J. J., D. A. Holway, A. V. Suárez, and T. J. Case. 2000. Role of propagule size in the success of incipient colonies of the invasive Argentine ant. Conservation Biology 14:559-563.

Holway, D. A., L. Lach, A. V. Suárez, N. D. Tsutsui, and T. J. Case. 2002. The causes and consequences of ant invasions. Annual review of ecology and systematics 33:181-233.

Hulme, P. E. 2016. Climate change and biological invasions: evidence, expectations, and response options. Biological Reviews. DOI:

INDEC (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos). 2010. Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda.

Jacobi, W. R., J. G. Hardin, B. A. Goodrich, and C. M. Cleaver. 2012. Retail firewood can transport live tree pests. Journal of Economic Entomology 105:1645-1658.

Josens, R., F. J. Sola, N. Marchisio, M. A. Di Renzo, and A. Giacometti. 2014. Knowing the enemy: ant behavior and control in a pediatric hospital of Buenos Aires. SpringerPlus 3:229.

King, J. R., and W. R. Tschinkel. 2006. Experimental evidence that the introduced fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, does not competitively suppress co-occurring ants in a disturbed habitat. Journal of Animal Ecology 75:1370-1378.

Koch, F. H., D. Yemshanov, R. D. Magarey, and W. D. Smith. 2012. Dispersal of invasive forest insects via recreational firewood: a quantitative analysis. Journal of Economic Entomology 105:438-450.

Kolar, C. S., and D. M. Lodge. 2001. Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16:199-204.

Kovacs, K. F., R. G. Haight, D. G. McCullough, R. J. Mercader, N. W. Siegert, and A. M. Liebhold. 2010. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in US communities, 2009-2019. Ecological Economics 69:569-578.

Krushelnycky, P. D., D. A. Holway, E. G. LeBrun, L. Lach, C. L. Parr, and K. L. Abbott. 2010. Invasion processes and causes of success. Pp. 245-260 in L. Lach, C. L. Parr and K. L. Abbott (eds.). Ant Ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Kusnezov, N. 1951. El género Camponotus en la Argentina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Acta Zoológica Lilloana 12:183-252.

Kusnezov, N. 1953. Las hormigas en los Parques Nacionales de la Patagonia y los problemas relacionados. Anales del Museo Nahuel Huapi. APN 3:105-124.

Lebouvier, M., M. Laparie, M. Hulle, A. Marais, Y. Cozic, L. Lalouette, P. Vernon, T. Candresse, Y. Frenot, and D. Renault. 2011. The significance of the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands for the assessment of the vulnerability of native communities to climate change, alien insect invasions and plant viruses. Biological Invasions 13:1195-1208.

Leung, B., D. M. Lodge, D. Finnoff, J. F. Shogren, M. A. Lewis, and G. Lamberti. 2002. An ounce of prevention or a pound of cure: bioeconomic risk analysis of invasive species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 269:2407-2413.

Liebhold, A. M., W. L. MacDonald, D. Bergdahl, and V. C. Mastro. 1995. Invasion by exotic forest pests: a threat to forest ecosystems. Forest Science 41:a0001-z0001.

Lieutier, F., K. R. Day, A. Battisti, J. -C. Gregoire, and H. F. Evans. 2004. Bark and wood boring insects in living trees in Europe: a synthesis. Springer.

Lodge, D. M. 1993. Biological invasions: lessons for ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8:133-137.

Lonsdale, W. M. 1999. Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility. Ecology 80:1522-1536.

Lowe, S., M. Browne, S. Boudjelas, and M. De Poorter. 2000. 100 of the world's worst invasive alien species: a selection from the global invasive species database. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) Auckland.

MacDonald, J. F., R. D. Akre, and R. E. Keyel. 1980. The german yellowjacket (Vespula germanica) problem in the United States (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 26:436-444.

McGlynn, T. P. 1999. The worldwide transfer of ants: geographical distribution and ecological invasions. Journal of Biogeography 26:535-548.

Menke, S. B., and D. A. Holway. 2006. Abiotic factors control invasion by Argentine ants at the community scale. Journal of Animal Ecology 75:368-376.

Moller, H. 1996. Lessons for invasion theory from social insects. Biological conservation 78:125-142.

Muirhead, J. R., B. Leung, C. van Overdijk, D. W. Kelly, K. Nandakumar, K. R. Marchant, and H. J. MacIsaac. 2006. Modelling local and long-distance dispersal of invasive emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera) in North America. Diversity and Distributions 12:71-79.

Ormsby, M. 2003. Pest risk analysis: ants on sawn timber imported from the South Pacific region. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, New Zealand. Biosecurity, Forest Authority, M. A. F. Biosecurity

Paruelo, J. M., A. Beltrán, E. Jobbágy, O. E. Sala, and R. A. Golluscio. 1998. The climate of Patagonia: general patterns and controls on biotic. Ecol Austral 8:85-101.

Pirk, G. I. 2014. Did ash fall from Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex affect ant abundance and richness in the Patagonian steppe? Ecología Austral 24: 23-30.

Poland, T. M., R. A. Haack, and T. R. Petrice. 1998. Chicago joins New York in battle with the Asian longhorned beetle. Newsl. Mich. Entomol. Soc 43:15-17.

Robinson, W. H. 1996. Urban entomology: insect and mite pests in the human environment. Chapman and Hall.

Roques, A., and M. A. Auger‐Rozenberg. 2006. Tentative analysis of the interceptions of non‐indigenous organisms in Europe during 1995–20041. EPPO Bulletin 36:490-496.

Rust, M. K., and N. -Y. Su. 2012. Managing social insects of urban importance. Annual Review of Entomology 57:355-375.

Saphores, J. -D. M., and J. F. Shogren. 2005. Managing exotic pests under uncertainty: optimal control actions and bioeconomic investigations. Ecological Economics 52:327-339.

Shigesada, N., and K. Kawasaki. 1997. Biological invasions: theory and practice. Oxford University Press, UK.

Smith, M. T., P. C. Tobin, J. Bancroft, G. Li, and R. Gao. 2004. Dispersal and spatiotemporal dynamics of Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in China. Environmental Entomology 33:435-442.

Suárez, A. V., D. A. Holway, and T. J. Case. 2001. Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: insights from Argentine ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:1095-1100.

Suárez, A. V., D. A. Holway, and P. S. Ward. 2005. The role of opportunity in the unintentional introduction of nonnative ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:17032-17035.

Tschinkel, W. R. 1988. Distribution of the fire ants Solenopsis invicta and S. geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in northern Florida in relation to habitat and disturbance. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 81:76-81.

Ugelvig, L. V., and S. Cremer. 2012. Effects of social immunity and unicoloniality on host-parasite interactions in invasive insect societies. Functional Ecology 26:1300-1312.

Vila, M., and J. Pujadas. 2001. Land-use and socio-economic correlates of plant invasions in European and North African countries. Biological conservation 100:397-401.

Von der Lippe, M., and I. Kowarik. 2007. Long‐Distance Dispersal of Plants by Vehicles as a Driver of Plant Invasions. Conservation Biology 21:986-996.

Walther, G. -R., A. Roques, P. E. Hulme, M. T. Sykes, P. Pyšek, I. Kühn, M. Zobel, S. Bacher, Z. Botta-Dukát, and H. Bugmann. 2009. Alien species in a warmer world: risks and opportunities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24:686-693.

Ward, D. F., J. R. Beggs, M. N. Clout, R. J. Harris, and S. O'Connor. 2006. The diversity and origin of exotic ants arriving in New Zealand via human-mediated dispersal. Diversity and Distributions 12:601-609.

Werenkraut, V., Fergnani, P. N., and A. Ruggiero. 2015. Ants at the edge: a sharp forest-steppe boundary influences the taxonomic and functional organization of ant species assemblages along elevational gradients in northwestern Patagonia (Argentina). Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 287-308.

Westphal, M. I., M. Browne, K. MacKinnon, and I. Noble. 2008. The link between international trade and the global distribution of invasive alien species. Biological Invasions 10:391-398.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

ISSN en línea: 0327-5477; impresa 1667-782X (español); 1667-7838 (inglés)