Aportes de la genética de la conservación al estudio de los mamíferos neotropicales: revisión y análisis crítico

Aportes de la genética de la conservación al estudio de los mamíferos neotropicales: revisión y análisis crítico

Maximiliano Nardelli, Juan I. Túnez

Resumen


Si bien todos los seres vivos modifican su entorno, nuestra especie ha adquirido la capacidad de hacerlo a una escala espacio-temporal superlativa. Como resultado de la industrialización y del uso de nuevas tecnologías, el impacto antrópico ha ido en aumento en los últimos siglos, lo que causó la disminución de los tamaños poblacionales o la extinción de numerosas poblaciones silvestres. En este sentido, desde el campo de la genética de la conservación, en las últimas décadas se realizaron diversos esfuerzos para aportar conocimientos nuevos que contribuyan a la conservación de poblaciones, especies y hábitats. Las propiedades de los distintos marcadores moleculares han permitido estudiar la variabilidad genética de las especies y cómo esa variabilidad se estructura en las poblaciones y define las llamadas Unidades de Manejo, que son unidades genéticas cuyo nombre deriva de actividades extractivistas. En este artículo revisamos y analizamos críticamente los esfuerzos científicos en el área de la genética de la conservación realizados entre 2006 y 2015 en pos de la conservación de los mamíferos del Neotrópico. También criticamos el concepto de Unidad de Manejo y analizamos las perspectivas a futuro en el campo de la genética de la conservación de los mamíferos neotropicales.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25260/EA.17.27.3.0.539


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