Evaluación de indicadores biológicos en suelos de la región semiárida pampeana central

Evaluación de indicadores biológicos en suelos de la región semiárida pampeana central

Romina Fernández, Ileana Frasier, Marcela Rorig, Alberto Quiroga, Elke Noellemeyer


En la región semiárida pampeana aún no se han usado indicadores biológicos para valorar cambios en la calidad del suelo relacionados con el uso de la tierra. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar, evaluar y obtener valores de línea de base de respiración de suelo, biomasa microbiana y cociente metabólico en suelos de la región semiárida pampeana bajo vegetación natural y agricultura. El estudio se desarrolló en Paleustoles petrocálcicos de la planicie con tosca de la región semiárida pampeana central. Determinamos los contenidos de arcilla y limo, la porosidad total, el contenido de carbono y nitrógeno, la respiración y la biomasa microbiana, la relación hongo/bacteria y el cociente metabólico en los estratos superior, medio e inferior de dos suelos con vegetación natural y otros dos bajo uso agrícola. El tipo de uso del suelo influyó significativamente sobre la actividad y el tamaño de la biota, de manera tal que los suelos agrícolas, con menores contenidos de carbono y nitrógeno, tuvieron una menor respiración y menores contenidos de carbono y nitrógeno en la biomasa microbiana, en relación con los suelos bajo vegetación natural. El cociente metabólico no presentó diferencias entre suelos bajo distinto uso, por lo que no fue de utilidad para indicar el estado de degradación edáfico, en comparación con la biomasa microbiana y la respiración. El uso del suelo también afectó la relación hongo/bacteria, ya que la participación de hongos en la biomasa microbiana de los suelos bajo uso agrícola fue considerablemente menor que la de los suelos bajo vegetación natural. Estos resultados nos permitieron establecer valores umbrales y de línea de base para la respiración del suelo y el carbono de la biomasa microbiana.


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