Aproximaciones al estudio del comportamiento de los productores agropecuarios en el Chaco Seco

Aproximaciones al estudio del comportamiento de los productores agropecuarios en el Chaco Seco

Matías E. Mastrangelo

Resumen


En forma creciente, los ecólogos somos llamados a desempeñar un rol más activo en la gestión de los recursos naturales y en la planifcación de los ecosistemas y paisajes rurales de nuestro país. La efectividad de la gestión y planifcación depende mayormente de la capacidad para transformar los comportamientos humanos que más influyen sobre el estado de los ecosistemas y los paisajes. Por lo tanto, la capacidad de los procesos y resultados de la investigación en ecología para transformar la realidad de los territorios se puede potenciar al integrarlos con elementos conceptuales y metodológicos de las ciencias del comportamiento humano. En el territorio, los cambios en el uso y cobertura de la tierra son el resultado de una multiplicidad de decisiones que toman quienes afectan de manera directa a los ecosistemas y a aquellos que se benefcian de ellos, en su mayoría productores agropecuarios. El presente trabajo revisa teorías, conceptos, métodos y aplicaciones de la psicología social para visibilizar y poner en debate sus aportes reales y potenciales a la investigación y la gestión de ecosistemas y paisajes rurales sujetos a transformación por la agricultura, los que son ilustrados con estudios en el Chaco Seco argentino. La teoría del comportamiento planifcado demostró ser un modelo conceptual y analítico de gran valor sinóptico para comprender los factores motivacionales endógenos que influyen sobre la formación de las intenciones de conservar por parte de productores agropecuarios. La valoración social de servicios ecosistémicos permitió observar la diversidad de identidades y de perfles de valoración que coexisten en el territorio. Finalmente, la superposición de curvas de compromiso e indiferencia mostró ser una herramienta simple y poderosa para vincular los compromisos ecológicos con los conflictos de preferencias, y para identifcar barreras y oportunidades que le permitan a los productores agropecuarios realizar una transición hacia sistemas efcientes y aceptables de uso de la tierra.

https://doi.org/10.25260/EA.18.28.2.0.644


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