El potencial de colonización micorrícico-arbuscular varía entre prácticas agrícolas y sitios en diferentes áreas geográficas de la Región Pampeana

El potencial de colonización micorrícico-arbuscular varía entre prácticas agrícolas y sitios en diferentes áreas geográficas de la Región Pampeana

Noelia Cofré, Carlos Urcelay, Luis G. Wall, Laura Domínguez, Alejandra Becerra

Resumen


Para evaluar las comunidades fúngicas es necesario identificar las especies presentes, cuantificar la densidad de propágulos y también determinar su infectividad. En este estudio se evaluó, mediante un ensayo experimental, el potencial de colonización micorrícico-arbuscular (PCM) de tres suelos bajo diferentes sistemas de cultivo (pastizal natural, rotación de cultivo y monocultivo de soja en siembra directa), en cuatro sitios ubicados en diferentes áreas geográficas de la Región Pampeana (Bengolea, Monte Buey, Pergamino y Viale), y se usó a Vicia villosa Roth como planta testigo. Los usos del suelo y los sitios tuvieron efecto sobre el PCM. Como esquema de rotación, el monocultivo mostró el mayor potencial para colonizar las raíces de Vicia villosa con respecto al pastizal natural, y la rotación de cultivo en la mayoría de las combinaciones planteadas, a diferencia de lo encontrado antes para los mismos suelos, donde el monocultivo disminuyó la riqueza de las comunidades micorrícicas determinadas por la densidad y la diversidad de esporas. Estos resultados remarcan las limitaciones de los paradigmas de interpretación de los sistemas simbióticos generados a partir de ensayos en condiciones controladas y el gran desconocimiento que aún existe sobre el funcionamiento de las interacciones planta-microorganismo en el suelo. Alternativamente, estos resultados podrían ser consecuencia de un efecto inhibitorio de la mayor fertilidad N-P en los suelos con rotación de cultivo respecto de los suelos bajo monocultivo debido a un manejo de reposición histórica de nutrientes por fertilización, ausente en los casos de monocultivo. El uso de una única especie vegetal en los ensayos de infectividad también podría estar sesgando los resultados, ya que limitaría, por especificidad de hospedador, su expresión en la totalidad de la comunidad micorrícica del suelo.

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