Erradicación del hongo Epichloë coenophiala de Schedonorus arundinaceus (festuca alta) por interrupción del proceso de transmisión vertical

Erradicación del hongo Epichloë coenophiala de Schedonorus arundinaceus (festuca alta) por interrupción del proceso de transmisión vertical

Lucas R. Petigrosso, Osvaldo R. Vignolio, Ignacio Damiano, M. Mercedes Echeverría, Mabel N. Colabelli, Pedro E. Gundel


Usualmente, festuca alta está infectada por un hongo endófito responsable de la intoxicación del ganado por la presencia de alcaloides fúngicos. El hongo endófito crece por el apoplasto de los tejidos aéreos y se transmite verticalmente a través de las semillas. La desinfección de plantas o clones es útil para eliminar un microorganismo peligroso de los cultivares y también para realizar experimentos. Sin embargo, no todos los fungicidas son efectivos, y si lo son, se debe respetar un lapso de espera para evitar confundir efectos del endófito con los del tratamiento. Sometimos plantas (clones de cuatro genotipos) a diferentes dosis de dos fungicidas, Almagor® (triazol + imidazol) y Amistar® (metoxi-acrilato), y evaluamos la persistencia del hongo. Los fungicidas se aplicaron con una pipeta vertiendo el producto sobre la base de los pseudotallos. El análisis de endófito se realizó en los macollos que recibieron el fungicida como en los nuevos macollos producidos por las plantas y en semillas. Mientras que Amistar® no tuvo ningún efecto, Almagor® fue 100% efectivo a todas las dosis. Este último fungicida interrumpió el proceso de transmisión vertical (las 5400 semillas evaluadas estuvieron libres de endófito). No se observaron efectos fitotóxicos. La proporción de plántulas normales y anormales dependió sólo del genotipo de la planta. Almagor® fue efectivo para evitar que el hongo creciera y llegara a las yemas reproductivas cuando los meristemas apicales estaban abajo, en las bases. El uso de Almagor® es promisorio en pastizales dominados por festuca alta tóxica, a fin de enriquecer el banco de semillas del suelo con semillas libres de endófito.

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