Los componentes del pastoreo afectan de forma diferencial las micorrizas en Paspalum dilatatum Poir.

Los componentes del pastoreo afectan de forma diferencial las micorrizas en Paspalum dilatatum Poir.

Silvina García, Fabiana Pezzani, Felipe Lezama, José M. Paruelo

Resumen


El pastoreo es una perturbación importante en los ecosistemas de pastizales, ya que altera su estructura y su funcionamiento. Las micorrizas arbusculares son interacciones cosmopolitas de estos ecosistemas, y se destacan por su incidencia elevada en las gramíneas. Las micorrizas muestran respuestas diversas y contradictorias al pastoreo (ser beneficiadas, perjudicadas o no ser afectadas). Una posible hipótesis es que cada componente del pastoreo (defoliación selectiva, deyecciones y pisoteo) diferiría en su importancia relativa al afectar la micorrización. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del pisoteo, la selectividad y la deposición de orina sobre las micorrizas de Paspalum dilatatum, una de las principales gramíneas nativas de los pastizales del Río de la Plata. En un experimento manipulativo en el que se simularon los distintos componentes del pastoreo se evaluó el efecto de cada componente de forma aislada y en interacción sobre la colonización micorrícica total, así como de las diferentes estructuras fúngicas (arbúsculos, ovillos y vesículas). La colonización micorrícica total y por arbúsculos no fueron afectadas por ninguno de los componentes del pastoreo, mientras que sí se observaron efectos sobre las demás estructuras fúngicas. La colonización por ovillos (una de las estructuras que participan en el intercambio con el hospedante) fue afectada de forma positiva por la selectividad y negativa por el agregado de nitrógeno (simulando la deposición de orina); estas estructuras también fueron afectadas por las interacciones selectividad x pisoteo y pisoteo x agregado de N. El pisoteo afectó negativamente la presencia de vesículas, lo que podría deberse, en parte, al daño mecánico que esta perturbación causa tanto sobre las raíces como sobre el micelio extra-radical. El estudio de los componentes del pastoreo de manera aislada mostró que cada uno ejerce efectos diferentes sobre las micorrizas, y su importancia relativa podría afectar el resultado global del pastoreo sobre esta interacción.

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