Visitantes florales del girasol (Helianthus annuus) y su vegetación acompañante en la Pampa Interior

  • Ana M. Chamer Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Cátedra de Botánica General y Cátedra de Botánica Sistemática; Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Diego Medan Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Cátedra de Botánica General y Cátedra de Botánica Sistemática; Buenos Aires, Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET).
  • Norberto H. Montaldo Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Cátedra de Botánica General y Cátedra de Botánica Sistemática; Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Anita I. Mantese Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Cátedra de Botánica General y Cátedra de Botánica Sistemática; Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Mariano Devoto Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Cátedra de Botánica General y Cátedra de Botánica Sistemática; Buenos Aires, Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3098-236X
Palabras clave: polinización de cultivos, red planta-polinizador, abeja melífera, polinizador nativo, borde de cultivo

Resumen

La producción, la calidad y la estabilidad de muchos cultivos, incluido el girasol, aumenta por la presencia de polinizadores que, en su mayoría, nidifican y obtienen recursos florales de los fragmentos de hábitat seminatural presentes en el paisaje. Los objetivos del estudio fueron 1) comprender la interacción del girasol con sus visitantes florales, con especial atención al efecto de la distancia al borde del cultivo, y 2) caracterizar la estructura de la red planta-polinizador, que incluye al girasol, la vegetación acompañante y sus visitantes florales, en el marco de un paisaje de la Región Pampeana sometido a uso agrícola intensivo (Gral. Villegas, provincia de Buenos Aires), donde el cultivo de girasol coexiste con la vegetación espontánea del borde. Entre los principales resultados se destaca, primero, que un grupo de abejas nativas dominó el elenco de visitantes florales; segundo, que la tasa de visita de Apis mellifera al girasol cayó hacia el interior del lote; finalmente, que los recursos florales del borde del cultivo que utilizan los polinizadores nativos son en su mayoría de origen exótico. Además, el enfoque de redes utilizado permitió ver la importancia de la vegetación circundante en el sostenimiento de las poblaciones de polinizadores del cultivo de girasol. En el presente contexto de intensificación del manejo agrícola, con la consiguiente reducción de bordes de cultivo y pérdida generalizada de biodiversidad en agroecosistemas resulta imperativo conocer mejor el valor económico y ecológico de los bordes de cultivo para sostener a los polinizadores y a la fauna benéfica en general.

Biografía del autor/a

Mariano Devoto, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Cátedra de Botánica General y Cátedra de Botánica Sistemática; Buenos Aires, Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET).
Profesor Adjunto - Cátedra de Botánica General, Facultad de Agronomía de la UBA Investigador Adjunto del CONICET

Citas

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Visitantes florales del girasol (Helianthus annuus) y su vegetación acompañante en la Pampa Interior
Publicado
2020-07-09
Sección
Comunicaciones breves