Diversidad taxonómica y funcional de aves: Diferencias entre hábitats antrópicos en un bosque subtropical

Diversidad taxonómica y funcional de aves: Diferencias entre hábitats antrópicos en un bosque subtropical

Anahí S. Vaccaro, M. Isabel Bellocq

Resumen


Una de las amenazas principales para la biodiversidad es el avance de las actividades humanas que implican usos extensivos de la tierra. En este estudio buscamos identificar los usos de la tierra que mejor preservan el ensamble de especies de aves y sus rasgos funcionales en un bosque subtropical. Para ello comparamos simultáneamente la diversidad taxonómica (riqueza específica y similitud en la composición de especies) y la funcional (diversidad de rasgos funcionales y similitud en la composición de rasgos) de aves entre el bosque nativo y los hábitats antrópicos que resultan de actividades como las forestaciones, la urbanización, la ganadería y la agricultura, en uno de los bosques subtropicales más diversos y amenazados del mundo: el Bosque Atlántico del Alto Paraná. Relevamos aves y variables ambientales en los cinco tipos de hábitat, y seleccionamos 11 rasgos para estimar la diversidad funcional. Estimamos el “1-índice de disimilitud de Gower” para explorar las similitudes entre el bosque nativo y los hábitats antrópicos. Pusimos a prueba modelos de cuadrados mínimos generalizados para comparar la similitud ambiental y las diversidades taxonómica y funcional entre los tipos de hábitat. Estudiamos la asociación de los rasgos funcionales en cada tipo de hábitat mediante un fourth corner analysis. Como esperábamos, las forestaciones fueron el hábitat que mejor preservó el ensamble de aves y de rasgos funcionales del bosque nativo, y los usos de la tierra que resultan en hábitats abiertos fueron los más diferentes al bosque nativo en diversidad taxonómica y funcional. La similitud ambiental entre los hábitats antrópicos y el hábitat nativo es clave para conservar las aves y sus rasgos funcionales. Estudiar la diversidad taxonómica y funcional en estos hábitats es esencial para predecir las respuestas de las comunidades a los usos de la tierra y permite tomar decisiones de manejo adecuadas.

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