Competencia interespecífica y demografía de pequeños mamíferos en hábitats lineales

Competencia interespecífica y demografía de pequeños mamíferos en hábitats lineales

Vanesa N. Serafini, María D. Gómez, José W. Priotto

Resumen


La competencia interespecífica puede influir en los parámetros demográficos y afectar el tamaño poblacional de las especies competidoras. En el presente estudio evaluamos el efecto de la abundancia poblacional de Akodon azarae sobre los parámetros demográficos de otras especies del ensamble mediante datos de captura-marcado-recaptura (CMR). Además, evaluamos los efectos de la variación temporal, las perturbaciones antropogénicas (quemas), el clima (precipitaciones y temperaturas) y variables endógenas (sexo y abundancia) sobre dichos parámetros. El estudio fue realizado en un terraplén de ferrocarril en el centro de la Argentina, a través de muestreos mensuales de CMR desde noviembre de 2011 hasta mayo de 2014. Estimamos la abundancia usando modelos de Pradel con diseño robusto para poblaciones cerradas. Modelamos las probabilidades de recaptura y sobrevida mediante modelos de Cormack Jolly Seber y las probabilidades de permanencia y tasas de crecimiento poblacional mediante modelos de Pradel. La abundancia de A. azarae disminuyó después de la quema, mientras que las abundancias de M. musculus y C. musculinus aumentaron hasta convertirse en las especies más abundantes. La abundancia de A. azarae no afectó ningún parámetro demográfico de las demás especies del ensamble. Dichos parámetros fueron explicados por la variación temporal, sexo o temperatura. Si bien la quema modificó los números poblaciones durante un período de tiempo corto, no afectó ningún parámetro poblacional. Aunque A. azarae es considerada una especie dominante, no encontramos evidencia de que su abundancia afecte la demografía de las demás especies. Los terraplenes de ferrocarril ofrecerían refugio y alimento a todas las especies durante el año, lo que permitiría evitar la competencia por los recursos disponibles. Sin embargo, las perturbaciones antropogénicas pueden producir cambios en la composición del ensamble permitiendo que especies invasoras como el ratón doméstico se establezcan.


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