Efecto de los efluentes cloacales sobre el ensamble macrobentónico submareal en un estuario urbano de la Argentina

  • Sandra Fiori Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía, Universidad Nacional del Sur, CONICET, IADO, Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.
  • María E. Bravo Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía, Universidad Nacional del Sur, CONICET, IADO, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.
  • Rodolfo Elías Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras. Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Mar del Plata, Argentina.
  • Analía Serra Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía, Universidad Nacional del Sur, CONICET, IADO, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.
  • María C. Carcedo Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía, Universidad Nacional del Sur, CONICET, IADO, Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.
  • Eder Dos Santos Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía, Universidad Nacional del Sur, CONICET, IADO, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.
  • Sandra Botté Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía, Universidad Nacional del Sur, CONICET, IADO, Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Resumen

Se analizó el efecto de los efluentes cloacales sin tratamiento sobre el ensamble macrobentónico submareal del estuario de Bahía Blanca. Se examinaron las variaciones espaciales en los descriptores biológicos en relación con los parámetros ambientales y la distribución de metales en los sedimentos de un canal afectado por efluentes urbanos. A lo largo del canal se registraron valores de concentración de metales mayores a los de la zona interna del estuario (sitio de referencia). Los valores más altos de turbidez del agua se registraron en el sitio próximo a la zona de descarga del efluente y en la zona media del canal, donde, además, se depositaron sedimentos de un dragado de la zona portuaria e industrial realizado dos años antes que este estudio. La densidad del ensamble disminuyó hacia la zona cercana a la descarga del efluente, mientras que la riqueza y la diversidad alcanzaron valores mínimos tanto en la zona de descarga como la zona media. Sólo dos especies de poliquetos se asociaron con estas áreas: Laeonereis acuta y Aphelochaeta sp.; el primero se encontró en la zona de descarga de efluentes, donde Cd y Pb fueron los metales más abundantes, y el segundo fue la especie dominante en el sitio caracterizado por la presencia de material de dragado y altas concentraciones de Cr y Ni. Este estudio proporciona datos de base con los cuales contrastar futuras medidas de manejo.

https://doi.org/10.25260/EA.20.30.1.0.954

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Efecto de los efluentes cloacales sobre el ensamble macrobentónico submareal en un estuario urbano de la Argentina
Publicado
2020-04-02