Factores que afectan el tamaño del ámbito hogareño de felinos (Mammalia, Carnívora), con énfasis en tres especies americanas


  • Renata Figueira Machado Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Animal, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Santa Maria, RS, 97110-970, Brasil. Departamento de Ecologia e Evolução, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Santa Maria, RS, 97110-970, Brasil.
  • Felipe Cerezer Curso de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Ecologia e Evolução, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Santa Maria, RS, 97110-970, Brasil.
  • Carla Hendges Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Animal, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Santa Maria, RS, 97110-970, Brasil.
  • Nilton Cáceres Departamento de Ecologia e Evolução, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Santa Maria, RS, 97110-970, Brasil.




El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los factores que influyen en el tamaño del ámbito hogareño de felinos en los niveles inter- e intraespecífico. En nivel interespecífico, evaluamos la influencia de la masa corporal en el ámbito hogareño de 19 especies de felinos, controlando la filogenia. A nivel de especies, evaluamos el efecto del sexo y el hábitat (abierto vs. cerrado) sobre el ámbito hogareño de tres especies de felinos americanos, Panthera onca, Leopardus pardalis y Puma concolor, para los cuales existe una buena cantidad de información. Los datos de masa corporal, sexo y ámbito hogareño fueron extraídos de la base de datos Pantheria (para 19 especies, para comparación interespecífica) y 48 estudios para la variación intraespecífica. Evaluamos la influencia de la masa corporal en el tamaño del ámbito hogareño de felinos utilizando un análisis filogenético de los mínimos cuadrados generalizados. Evaluamos la existencia de dimorfismo sexual en el ámbito hogareño y la masa corporal usando una prueba t pareada. Finalmente, investigamos la influencia del hábitat en el ámbito hogareño utilizando un modelo ANOVA. Nuestros resultados mostraron que el tamaño del ámbito hogareño está asociado positivamente con la masa corporal en felinos. A nivel intraespecífico, confirmamos que la masa corporal y el ámbito hogareño de los machos son mayores que los de las hembras en P. onca y L. pardalis y P. concolor. Además, el ámbito hogareño de P. onca aumenta en hábitats abiertos (i.e., pastizales, desiertos y matorrales), tal como se esperaba. En general, nuestros resultados confirman que los mayores ámbitos hogareños están asociados con un tamaño corporal más grande en los animales que necesitan más recursos alimentarios o recursos específicos (como presas para felinos) para satisfacer las tasas metabólicas. Además, el ámbito hogareño de los tres felinos parece estar muy influenciado por los atributos de reproducción, así como por la calidad del hábitat. Esto sugiere una conexión con la distribución espacial de alimentos (presas) y las oportunidades de apareamiento.



Akbar, Z., and M. L. Gorman. 1993.The effect of supplementary feeding upon the sizes of home ranges of woodmice Apodemus sylvaticus, living on a system of maritime sand-dunes. Journal of Zoology 231:233-237.

Animal Diversity Web (ADW). Disponível em: http://animaldiversity.org/.

Astete, S., R. Sollmann, and L. Silveira. 2008. Comparative ecology of jaguars in Brazil. Cat News Special 4:9-14.

Azevedo, F. C. C., and D. L. Murray. 2007. Spatial organization and food habits of jaguars (Panthera onca) in a floodplain forest. Biological Conservation 137:391-402.

Bekoff, M., T. J. Daniels, and J. L. Gittleman. 1984. Life history patterns and comparative social ecology of carnivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15:191-232.

Blomberg, S. P., and T. Garland. 2002. Tempo and model in evolution: phylogenetic inertia, adaptation and comparative methods. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15:899-910.

Cavalcanti, S. M., and E. M. Gese. 2009. Spatial ecology and social interactions of jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy 90:935-945.

Ceballos, G., C. Chávez, A. Rivera, C. Manterola, and B. Wall. 2002. Tamaño poblacional y conservación del jaguar en la reserva de la biosfera Calakmul, Campeche, México. Pp. 403-417 en R. A. Medellín: El jaguar en el nuevo milenio.

Crawshaw, P. G., and H. B. Quigley. 1991. Jaguar spacing, activity and habitat use in a seasonally flooded environment in Brazil. Journal of Zoology 223:357-370.

Crawshaw, P. G. 1995. Comparative ecology of ocelot (Felis pardalis) and jaguar (Panthera onca) in a protected subtropical forest in Brazil and Argentina. Dissertation. University of Florida.

Cullen Jr., L., K. C. Abreu, D. Sana, and A. F. D. Nava. 2005. Jaguars as landscape detectives for the upper Paraná River corridor, Brazil. Natureza e Conservação 3:124-146.

Cunningham, S. C., L. A. Haynes, C. Gustavson, and D. D. Haywood. 1995. Evaluation of the interaction between mountain lions and cattle in the Aravaipa-Klondyke area of southeast Arizona: a final report. Technical report/Arizona Game and Fish Dept., Research Branch (USA).

Damuth, J. 1981. Home range, home range overlap, and species energy use among herbivorous mammals. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 15:185-193.

Di Bitetti, M. S., A. Paviolo, and C. De Angelo. 2006. Density, habitat use and activity patterns of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina. Journal of Zoology 270:153-163.

Dickson, B. G., and P. Beier. 2002. Home-Range and Habitat Selection by Adult Cougars in Southern California. The Journal of Wildlife Management 66:1235-1245.

Dillon, A. 2005. Ocelot density and home range in Belize, Central America: camera-trapping and radio telemetry. Tesis doctoral. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Dillon, A., and M. J. Kelly. 2008. Ocelot home range, overlap and density: comparing radio telemetry with camera trapping. Journal of Zoology 275:391-398.

Dray, S., and A. B. Dufour. 2007. The ade4 package: implementing the duality diagram for ecologists. Journal of Statistical Software 22:1-20.

Emmons, L. H. 1987. Comparative feeding ecology of felids in a neotropical rainforest. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 20:271-283.

Emmons, L. H. 1988. A field study of ocelots (Felispardalis) in Peru. Revue d'Ecologie la Terre et la Vie 43:133-157

Emmons, L. H., P. Sherman, D. Bolster, A. Goldizen, and J. Terborgh. 1989. Ocelot behavior in moonlight. Neotropical Mammal 1989:233-242.

Felsenstein, J. 1988. Phylogenenies and quantitative characters. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19:445-471.

Ferguson, S., M. Taylor, E. Born, A. Rosing-Asvid, and F. Messier. 1999. Determinants of Home Range Size for Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus). Ecology Letters 2:311-318.

Franklin, W. L., W. E. Johnson, R. J. Sarno, and J. A. Iriarte. 1999. Ecology of the Patagonia puma Felisconcolorpatagonica in southern Chile. Biological Conservation 90:33-40.

Garla, R. C., E. Z. F. Setz, and N. Gobbi. 2001. Jaguar (Panthera onca) Food Habits in Atlantic Rain Forest of Southeastern Brazil1. Biotropica 33:691-696.

Gittleman, J. L., and P. H. Harvey. 1982. Carnivore home-range size, metabolic needs and ecology. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 10:57-63.

Goulart, F., M. E. Graipel, M. Tortato, I. Ghizoni-Jr, L. G. Oliveira-Santos, and N. Cáceres. 2009. Ecology of the ocelot (Leoparduspardalis) in the Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 4:137-143.

Grafen, A. 1989. The phylogenetic regression. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 326:119-157.

Greenwood, P. J. 1980. Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals. Animal Behaviour 28:1140-1162.

Grigione, M. M., P. Beier, R. A. Hopkins, D. Neal, W. D. Padley, C. M. Schonewald, and M. L. Johnson. 2002. Ecological and allometric determinants of home-range size for mountain lions (Puma concolor). Animal Conservation 5:317-324.

Harestad, A. S., and F. L. Bunnel. 1979. Home Range and Body Weight-A Reevaluation. Ecology 60:389-402.

Harmon, L. J., J. T. Weir, C. D. Brock, R. E. Glor, and W. Challenger. 2008. GEIGER: investigating evolutionary radiations. Bioinformatics 24:129-131.

Heske, E. J., and R. S. Ostfeld. 1990. Sexual Dimorphism in Size, Relative Size of Testes, and Mating Systems in North American Voles. Journal of Mammalogy 71:510-519.

Iriarte, J. A., L. F. William, E. J. Warren, and H. R. Kent. 1990. Biogeographic variation of food habits and body size of the America puma. Oecologia 85:185-190.

Jedrzejewski, W., M. Abarca, A. Viloria, H. Cerda, D. Lew, H. Takiff, E. Abada, P. Velozo, and K. Schmidt. 2011. Jaguar Conservation in Venezuela against the backdrop of current knowledge on its biology and evolution. Interciência 36:954-966.

Johnson, W. E. 2006. The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment. Science 311:73-77.

Jombart, T., and S. Dray. 2008. adephylo: exploratory analyses for the phylogenetic comparative method.

Jones, K. E., J. Bielby, M. Cardillo, et al. 2009. Pantheria: a species-level database of life history, ecology, and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals. Ecology 90(9):2648.

Kelt, D. A., and D. H. V. Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. The American Naturalist 157:637-645.

Kembel, S. W., P. D. Cowan, M. R. Helmus, W. K. Cornwell, H. Morlon, D. D. Ackerly, S. P. Blomberg, and C. O. Webb. 2010. Picante: R tools for integrating phylogenies and ecology. Bioinformatics 26:1463-1464.

Konecny, M. J. 1989. Movement patterns and food habits of four sympatric carnivore species in Belize, Central America. Advances in Neotropical Mammalogy 1989:243-264.

Li, G., B. Davis, E. Eizirik, and W. Murphy. 2015.Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae). Genome research 26:1-11.

Lindstedt, S. L., B. J. Miller, and S. W. Buskirk. 1986. Home Range, Time, and Body Size in Mammals. Ecology 67:413-418.

Logan, K. A., L. L. Irwin, and R. Skinner. 1986. Characteristics of a hunted mountain lion population in Wyoming. The Journal of Wildlife Management 50:648-654.

López González, C. A, and B. J. Miller. 2002. Do jaguars (Panthera onca) depend on large prey? Western North American Naturalist 62:218-222.

MacDonald, D. W., and A. J. Loveridge. 2010. The biology and conservation of wild felids. Vol. 2. Oxford University Press.

Maddison, W. P., and D. R. Maddison. 2015. Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 3.03. http://mesquiteproject.org/.

Manfredi, C., L. Soler, M. Lucherini, and E. B. Casanave. 2006. Home range and habitat use by Geoffroy's cat (Oncifelis geoffroyi) in a wet grassland in Argentina. Journal of Zoology 268:381-387.

Martins, E. P., and T. F. Hansen. 1997. Phylogenies and the comparative method: a general approach to incorporating phylogenetic information into the analysis of interspecific data. American Naturalist 149:646-667.

McLoughlin, P. D., and S. H. Ferguson. 2000. A hierarchical pattern of limiting factors helps explain variation in home range size. Ecoscience 7:123-130.

McNab, B. K. 1963. Bioenergetics and the determination of home range size. American Naturalist 97:133-140.

Neal, D. L., G. N. Steger, and R. C. Bertram. 1987. Mountain lions: preliminary findings on home-range use and density in the central Sierra Nevada. Vol. 392. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Nilsen, E. B., I. Herfindal, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2005. Can intra-specific variation in carnivore home-range size be explained using remote-sensing estimates of environmental productivity? Ecoscience 12:68-75.

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's mammals of the world. Vol. 1. Page 313. Johns Hopkins University press.

Novack, A., B. M. Martin, M. E. Sunquist, and F. R. Labisky. 2005. Foraging ecology of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor) in hunted and non-hunted sites within the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala. Journal of Zoology 267:167-178.

Nunez, R., B. Miller, and F. Lindzey. 2002. Ecología del jaguar en la reserva de la biosfera Chamela-Cuixmala, Jalisco, México. Pp. 107-126 in Medellin, R. A., C. Chetkiewicz, A. Rabinowitz, K. H. Redford, J. G. Robinson, E. Sanderson and A. Taber (eds.). Jaguars in the new millennium. A status assessment, priority detection, and recommendations for the conservation of jaguars in the Americas. Mexico D. F., UNAM/WCS.

Pagel, M. 1999. Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution. Nature 401:877-884.

Paradis E., J. Claude, and K. Strimmer. 2004. APE: analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language. Bioinformatics 20:289-290.

Perry, G., and T. Garland. 2002. Lizard Home Ranges Revisited: Effects of Sex, Body Size, Diet, Habitat, and Phylogeny. Ecology 83:1870.

Pinheiro J., D. Bates, S. Deb Roy, D. Sarkar, and R Core Team. 2016. nlme: Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. R package version 3.1-128. URL: cran.r-project.org.

Plavcan, J. 2000. Inferring social behavior from sexual dimorphism in the fossil record. Journal of Human Evolution 39:327-344.

R Core Team. 2015. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.URL: www.r-project.org.

Rabinowitz, A. R., and B. G. Nottingham. 1986. Ecology and behavior of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in Belize, Central America. Journal of Zoology 210:149-159.

Revell, L. J. 2012. Phytools: An R package for phylogenetic comparative biology (and other things). Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3:217-223.

Ross, P. I., and M. G. Jalkotzy. 1992. Characteristics of a hunted population of cougars in southwestern Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:417-426.

Sandell, M. 1989. The mating tactics and spacing patterns of solitary carnivores. Pp. 164-182 in Carnivore Behavior, Ecology and Evolution. J. L. Gitleman (ed.). Cornell University Press, New York, USA.

Scognamillo, D. I. E., M. Maxit, M. E. Sunquist, and L. Farrell. 2002. Jaguar ecology and the problem of cattle predation in Hato Pinero, Venezuela. Pp. 139 in El jaguar en el Nuevo milenio.

Scognamillo, D., I. E. Maxit, M. Sunquist, and J. Polisar. 2003. Coexistence of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor) in a mosaic landscape in the Venezuelan llanos. Journal of Zoology 259:269-279.

Seymour, K. L. 1989. Panthera onca. Mammalian Species Archive 340:1-9.

Schaller, G. B., and J. M. C. Vasconcelos. 1978. Jaguar predation on capybara. Z. Säugetierk 43:296-301.

Schaller, G. B., and P. G. Crawshaw Jr. 1980. Movement Patterns of Jaguar. Biotropica 12:161-168.

Silveira, L. 2004. Ecologia comparada e conservação da onça-pintada (Pantheraonca) e onça-parda (Puma concolor), no Cerrado e Pantanal.Tese de doutorado.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Universidade de Brasilia.

Soisalo, M. K., and S. M. Cavalcanti. 2006. Estimating the density of a jaguar population in the Brazilian Pantanal using camera-traps and capture-recapture sampling in combination with GPS radio-telemetry. Biological Conservation 129:487-496.

Sunquist, M. E. 1981. The social organization of tigers (Panthera tigris) in Royal Chitawan National Park, Nepal. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology.Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, D.C. 336:1-98.

Sunquist, M. E., and M. E. Ludlow. 1987. Ecology and behavior of ocelots in Venezuela. National Geographic Research 3:447-461.

Sweanor, L. L., K. A. Logan, and M. G. Hornocker. 2000. Cougar dispersal patterns, metapopulation dynamics, and conservation. Conservation Biology 14:798-808.

Tufto, J., R. Andersen, and J. Linnell. 1996. Habitat Use and Ecological Correlates of Home Range Size in a Small Cervid: The Roe Deer. Journal of Animal Ecology 65(6):715-724.

Van Valkenburgh, B. V. 1999. Major Patterns In The History Of Carnivorous Mammals. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 27:463-493.

Van Valkenburgh, B. V., and T. Sacco. 2002. Sexual dimorphism, social behavior, and intrasexual competition in large Pleistocene carnivorans. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22:164-169.

Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-Size Dimorphism: Influence of Mass and Mating Systems in the Most Dimorphic Mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.

Wozencraft, W. 2005. Order Carnivora. Pp. 2142 in Wilson, D. E. and D. M. Reeder (eds.). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Vol. 1. Johns Hopkins University press.

Factores que afectan el tamaño del ámbito hogareño de felinos (Mammalia, Carnívora), con énfasis en tres especies americanas




Cómo citar

Figueira Machado, R., Cerezer, F., Hendges, C., & Cáceres, N. (2017). Factores que afectan el tamaño del ámbito hogareño de felinos (Mammalia, Carnívora), con énfasis en tres especies americanas. Ecología Austral, 27(2), 232–241. https://doi.org/10.25260/EA.