A functional classification of 63 common Poaceae in the "Campos" grasslands of South America

Una clasificación funcional de 63 Poáceas comunes de los pastizales naturales de Sudamérica

Pablo Cruz, Lucrecia Lezana, Martín Durante, Martín Jaurena, Mercedes Figari, Leandro Bittencourt, Jean-Pierre Theau, Ernesto Massa, Julio Viegas, Fernando L. Ferreira de Quadros

Resumen


Los pastizales naturales que forman parte de los "Campos" de América del Sur se caracterizan por tener un gran número de especies a nivel de potrero (alta diversidad α) y una diferenciación entre potreros relativamente baja (baja diversidad β). Esto significa que, a nivel de predio, se dispone de un conjunto de recursos forrajeros con picos de crecimiento estacionales poco diferenciados. En parte, esto es consecuencia del uso escaso de prácticas diferenciales de fertilización, de manejo del pastoreo y de corte sobre dichas comunidades vegetales. Para incentivar la diversificación de los recursos forrajeros (aumentar la diversidad β) se puede aprovechar la respuesta diferencial de los pastizales frente a cambios en su uso. Caracterizar las especies a través de sus rasgos funcionales permite orientar el uso del recurso al aplicar el tratamiento adecuado a su composición, aumentar la diversidad de tipos de vegetación y favorecer, de esta manera, el escalonamiento de la producción entre distintos potreros. Luego de una primera división entre especies C3 y C4, se clasificaron 63 Poáceas en 8 grupos o tipos funcionales de plantas (PFT) según su preferencia por sitios más o menos fértiles e intensidades de uso más o menos altas. Sobre la base de los valores de contenido en materia seca foliar (LDMC) obtenidos en varios experimentos en Brasil, Uruguay y Argentina se separaron cuatro PFT, dos de especies en C3 y otros dos de especies en C4, que presentan valores inferiores o muy cercanos a 300 mg/g. Las especies de estos cuatro PFT están adaptadas a ambientes fértiles y defoliadas con gran intensidad, a diferencia de los cuatro PFT restantes. Fertilizar y usar de forma más intensa la vegetación donde dominan las especies con esas bajas LDMC permitirá diversificar el valor de uso de los potreros, lo que facilita el aprovechamiento de los recursos forrajeros a nivel de predio.

https://doi.org/10.25260/EA.19.29.2.0.727


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Referencias


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