Las arañas saltadoras (Araneae: Salticidae) como indicadoras del estado de conservación de los hábitats en el Chaco Oriental

Autores/as

  • María F. Nadal Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Laboratorio de Biología de los Artrópodos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Corrientes, Argentina

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.25260/EA.22.32.3.0.1987

Palabras clave:

valor indicador, follaje, pastizal, hojarasca, juveniles

Resumen

Las arañas de la familia Salticidae pueden ser indicadoras valiosas de diversas condiciones ambientales porque se distribuyen en casi todos los continentes y se encuentran en una gran variedad de hábitats y en todas las estaciones climáticas. Se evaluó si las especies de Salticidae funcionan como indicadores del estado de conservación de los hábitats y si el uso de los datos de adultos+juveniles o solo adultos arroja resultados diferentes. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en dos parques naturales y dos áreas semi-naturales ubicadas entre ambos parques en un área del Chaco Oriental, Argentina. Las muestras se tomaron de tres tipos de hábitats: follaje, hojarasca y pastizal. El análisis de especies indicadoras se realizó con el índice valor indicador (IndVal). Un valor alto de IndVal para una especie en un hábitat (e.g., pastizales semi-naturales) indica que es específica (relativamente abundante) y fiel (distribuida uniformemente) de ese hábitat. Las especies que presentaron valores de IndVal >0.45 y >0.70 fueron clasificadas como detectoras e indicadoras, respectivamente. Las especies indicadoras son muy características de un grupo (exclusivas o casi exclusivas), mientras que las especies detectoras tienen preferencia por un grupo, pero no son exclusivas de él. Philira micans resultó detectora para el follaje seminatural; Semiopyla viperina, para la hojarasca natural y Maeota dorsalis, para los pastizales naturales. El uso de datos de adultos+juveniles proporcionó más información sobre la cantidad de especies IndVal-significativas; las tres especies detectoras mencionadas se detectaron exclusivamente a partir de este conjunto de datos. Este estudio demuestra que las arañas Salticidae en el área de estudio son sensibles al estado de conservación de los hábitats analizados ya que se registraron especies detectoras. Además, este trabajo demuestra que el conjunto de datos de adultos+juveniles mejora la detección de especies sensibles a cambios.

Citas

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Las arañas saltadoras (Araneae: Salticidae) como indicadoras del estado de conservación de los hábitats en el Chaco Oriental

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2022-11-22

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Nadal, M. F. (2022). Las arañas saltadoras (Araneae: Salticidae) como indicadoras del estado de conservación de los hábitats en el Chaco Oriental. Ecología Austral, 1120–1132. https://doi.org/10.25260/EA.22.32.3.0.1987

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