Patrones de reclutamiento en cuatro especies de Physaria (Brassicaceae): implicancias para el mantenimiento de la densidad en poblaciones silvestres y en cultivo

Patrones de reclutamiento en cuatro especies de Physaria (Brassicaceae): implicancias para el mantenimiento de la densidad en poblaciones silvestres y en cultivo

Luciana González Paleo, Alejandro Pastor-Pastor, Marlene Bär-Lamas, Alejandra Vilela, Damian Ravetta

Resumen


En zonas áridas, el reclutamiento de nuevos individuos es un proceso crítico que determina la viabilidad poblacional, el potencial de invasión de plantas alóctonas y el éxito en el establecimiento de cultivos. Se evaluaron las principales etapas del reclutamiento (lluvia de semillas, fecha de emergencia y supervivencia de las plántulas) en cuatro especies de Physaria (P. gracilis, P. angustifolia, P. pinetorum, y P. mendocina) en un experimento a campo en la Patagonia argentina, con el objetivo evaluar el potencial de este proceso para entender la dinámica poblacional y su utilidad como una alternativa sustentable de restablecimiento del cultivo. Se estudió el efecto de la disponibilidad de agua y de la densidad inicial de plántulas sobre la densidad final del cultivo. La cantidad total de semillas dispersadas fue mayor en P. gracilis y P. pinetorum que en las otras especies. No hubo germinación en P. mendocina. Las semillas de P. pinetorum germinaron a fines del verano, mientras que el resto de las especies germinó en primavera. La supervivencia estuvo modulada por un mecanismo denso-dependiente. En P. pinetorum, la densidad de plántulas fue estable en el tiempo en las parcelas de baja densidad inicial, mientras que decreció en las parcelas de densidades media y alta. A pesar de esto, la densidad final fue mayor en las parcelas de alta densidad inicial. La densidad final de P. gracilis respondió a la frecuencia de riego. Concluimos que la cantidad de semillas es adecuada para el restablecimiento de la población en las cuatro especies, aunque los procesos que resultan en la densidad final fueron dependientes de la especie. El control apropiado de la densidad inicial de plántulas jugaría un rol relevante para que el restablecimiento se produzca a densidades apropiadas para el cultivo en P. pinetorum.


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